Friday, October 9, 2015

[Mammalogy • 2015] Hipposideros lankadiva gyi • A Review of Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart, 1850 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) with A Description of A New Subspecies from Myanmar

Hipposideros lankadiva gyi 
Bates, Tun, Aung, Lu, Lum & Sein, 2015
FIGURE 3. Hipposideros lankadiva gyi from Pawtawmu Cave, Karmine Township, Kachin State, Myanmar.

 In January, 2011, a colony of Hipposideros lankadiva was discovered in Kachin State, upper Myanmar. The large size of the specimens when compared to those from peninsular India led to a review of the taxonomy of the species and the description of a new subspecies from Myanmar, with material from north-east India referred to this new taxon. The distribution of the species from throughout its range is summarised and mapped. Based on the material from Myanmar, new information is provided on the acoustic characters and the bacular morphology. Short notes are provided on its ecology in Myanmar and north-east India.

KEY WORDS: India, taxonomy, distribution, echolocation, ecology

FIGURE 6. Distribution of Hipposideros lankadiva. Red shading: distribution of H. l. gyi; brown shading: subspecies not known; blue shading: distribution of H. l. indus; green shading: distribution of H. l. lankadiva. Shading is for indicative purposes only; locations based on specimen data, either collected personally or from the literature, are shown as solid circles.

Distribution. — Hipposideros lankadiva gyi is known from Myanmar and north-east India. In addition, the species is recorded from Sri Lanka, India, and Bangladesh (Fig. 6, for details see Appendix 1).
Remarks. — Although genetic data are not currently available for H. l. gyi, a follow-up study of Hipposideros lankadiva from throughout its range is being planned. This will include morphometric, genetic and acoustic data sets and will review in detail the phylogeny of three subspecies. 

The colony of H. l. gyi at Pawtawmu Cave was estimated to number about 1,000 individuals, although no precise count could be made. In addition, there were about 20,000 fruit bats, Eonycteris spelaea, and a few individuals of the small leaf-nosed bat, Aselliscus stoliczkanus. The cave, which is at an elevation of 245 metres (798 feet) above sea level, is situated in a limestone outcrop. It comprises two stories with the main chamber measuring about 260 m in length, 6 m in width and 11 m in height. The outcrop is surrounded by heavily disturbed evergreen forest, which includes wild banana and coconut (MMA and OMT, pers. observations). 

Material from Mizoram State, here referred to H. l. gyi, was collected at an elevation of about 250 metres beside a bamboo plantation (Mandal et al., 1997) whilst that from Manipur State was collected at 175 metres on a hill-top with rubber plantations (Mandal et al., 1993). In Meghalaya, it was found in ‘incredible numbers, closely covering the entire walls and the roof’ at the end of a tunnel some 360 metres from the entrance of Siju Cave (Kemp, 1924).

Information about the ecology of H. lankadiva indus and H. l. lankadiva in peninsular India and Sri Lanka is included in Bates and Harrison (1997). 

Conservation status. — The conservation status of Hipposideros lankadiva is listed by the IUCN Red List as ‘Least Concern’ (Molur et al., 2008). According to Bates and Harrison (1997), it is known from a relatively small number of colonies but many of these are large. One colony of over 11,000 individuals is known from Sri Lanka and a colony of about 6000 individuals was observed in Meghalaya (Molur et al., 2008). 

Paul Bates, Ohnmar Tun, Moe Moe Aung, Aung Lu, M. Roi Lum and Mie Mie Sein. 2015. A Review of Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart, 1850 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) with A Description of A New Subspecies from Myanmar.
Tropical Natural History. 15(2): 191–204.

As part of the mentoring session in scientific writing during the SEABCRU meeting at University of Mandalay, Myanmar 2 years ago. Here we present taxonomic papers based on a bunch of interesting unpublished data of local researchers there! Congratulations to Paul Bates, Ohnmar Tun, Moe Moe Aung, Aung Lu, Roi Lum and Prof. Mie Mie Sein on the first report and a new subspecies of Hipposideros lankadiva from Myanmar, H. lankadiva gyi, named after their retired senior bat researcher, 'Stanley' Khin Maung Gyi.

Thursday, October 8, 2015

[Paleontology • 2015] Allodaposuchus hulki • A New Species of Allodaposuchus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Spain: Phylogenetic and Paleobiological Implications

Allodaposuchus hulki 
Blanco, Fortuny, Vicente, Luján, García-Marçà & Sellés, 2015
DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1171


Background. The Late Cretaceous is a keystone period to understand the origin and early radiation of Crocodylia, the group containing all extant lineages of crocodilians. Among the taxa described from the latest Cretaceous of Europe, the genus Allodaposuchus is one of the most common but also one of the most controversial. However, because of its fragmentary record, several issues regarding its phylogenetic emplacement and its ecology remain unsolved or unknown. The discovery of a single specimen attributed to Allodaposuchus, represented by both cranial and postcranial remains, from the Casa Fabà site (Tremp Basin, NE Spain) in the lower red unit of the Tremp Fm. (early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous) offers a unique opportunity to deepen in the phylogenetic relationships of the group and its ecological features.

Methods. The specimen is described in detail, and CT scan of the skull is performed in order to study the endocranial morphology as well as paratympanic sinuses configuration. In addition, myological and phylogenetic analyses are also carried out on the specimen for to shed light in ecological and phylogenetic issues, respectively.

Results. The specimen described herein represents a new species, Allodaposuchus hulki sp. nov., closely related to the Romanian A. precedens. The CT scan of the skull revealed an unexpected paratympanic sinuses configuration. Allosaposuchus hulki exhibits an “anterodorsal tympanic sinus” not observed in any other extant or extinct crocodilian. The caudal tympanic recesses are extremely enlarged, and the expanded quadratic sinus seems to be connected to the middle-ear channel. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the emplacement of the informal taxonomic group ‘Allodaposuchia’ at the base of Crocodylia, being considered the sister group of Borealosuchus and Planocraniidae.

Discussion. Although this is a preliminary hypothesis, the unique paratympanic configuration displayed by A. hulki suggests that it could possess a high-specialized auditory system. Further, the large cranial cavities could help to reduce the weight of the cranium. Concerning the postcranial skeleton, Allodaposuchus hulki shows massive and robust vertebrae and forelimb bones, suggesting it could have a bulky body. The myological study performed on the anterior limb elements supports this interpretation. In addition, several bone and muscular features seem to point at a semi-erected position of the forelimbs during terrestrial locomotion. Taking all the above results into consideration, it seems plausible to suggest that A. hulki could conduct large incursions out of the water and have a semi-terrestrial lifestyle.

Keywords: Animal Behavior, Paleontology, Taxonomy, Zoology

Systematic Paleontology

Order CROCODYLIFORMES Hay, 1930 (sensu Benton & Clark, 1988),
Suborder EUSUCHIA Huxley, 1875,

Unranked CROCODYLIA Gmelin, 1789 (sensu Benton & Clark, 1988),

Genus Allodaposuchus Nopcsa, 1928,
Allodaposuchus hulki sp. nov. 267AADFA-AD84-45F4-B195-D08E174559CC

Etymology: hulki, from the character of Marvel, Hulk; due to the strong muscle attachments of the bones.

Alejandro Blanco, Josep Fortuny, Alba Vicente, Àngel H. Luján, Jordi Alexis García-Marçà and Albert G. Sellés​. 2015. A New Species of Allodaposuchus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Spain: Phylogenetic and Paleobiological Implications. PeerJ 3:e1171. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1171

“Hulki”, un cocodrilo musculoso entre los dinosaurios de los Pirineos - @MuseuICP @ICP_MCrusafont ||

Wednesday, October 7, 2015

[Paleontology • 2015] Linlongopterus jennyae • A New Toothed Pteranodontoid (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea) from the Jiufotang Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian) of China and comments on Liaoningopterus gui Wang and Zhou, 2003

Linlongopterus jennyae  Rodrigues, Jiang, Cheng, Wang & Kellner, 2015
Figure 1. General view of specimen IVPP V15549, holotype of Linlongopterus jennyae gen. et sp. nov.
 (A) Photograph;(B) respective line drawing. afo, adductor fossa; art, articular; d, dentary; j, jugal; l, left; m, maxilla; naof, nasoantorbital fenestra; pl,palatine; pm, premaxilla; pty, pterygoid; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; r, right; te, teeth. Scale bar: 50 mm.
Figure 2. Line drawing reconstruction of the skull and mandible of Linlongopterus jennyae based on holotype IVPP V15549. Preservedbones in white. Scale bar: 50 mm.

Pteranodontoids consist of a diverse and cosmopolitan clade of Cretaceous pterodactyloid pterosaurs. In the Jiufotang Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian) of northeastern China, pterodactyloids are represented by azhdarchoids and pteranodontoids, including istiodactylids and anhanguerians. Here, we describe a new pterosaur from this unit that represents a new species of toothed pteranodontoid. Its overall morphology is consistent with other toothed pteranodontoids but shows some interesting features such as the orbit being more ventrally positioned than in all other species from this clade. It differs markedly from all other pterosaurs from this unit, including Liaoningopterus, Guidraco and Ikrandraco, with which the new taxon is possibly related. In addition to the description of the new taxon, we also describe the anhanguerid Liaoningopterus gui in more detail. The new species, Liaoningopterus gui, Guidraco venator and Ikrandraco avatar, are large pterosaurs with very distinct tooth morphologies, suggesting that they had different prey preferences, partially explaining how the Jiufotang Formation could bear such a high diversity of pterosaur species.

Keywords: Lower Cretaceous, Jiufotang Formation, China, Pterosauria, Linlongopterus, Liaoningopterus

Systematic palaeontology

Pterosauria  Kaup, 1834
Pterodactyloidea  Plieninger, 1901
Pteranodontoidea  Marsh, 1876, sensu Kellner, 2003

Linlongopterus jennyae  gen. et sp. nov.

Linlongopterus  gen. nov. Type species

Etymology: . From the Chinese words lin, meaning forest, and long, dragon; and pteros, from the Greek meaning wing.

 Linlongopterus jennyae  sp. nov.

Etymology: Species name in honour of the late Elfriede Kellner, also known as Jenny, a great supporter of palaeontological studies.

 Holotype: IVPP V15549, partial associated skull andmandible, deposited at the IVPP in Beijing, China.

 Locality and horizon: Jianchang, Jianchang County,western Liaoning Province, China. Jiufotang Formation, Aptian (120 Ma) (He et al. 2004)

Taissa Rodrigues, Shunxing Jiang, Xin Cheng, Xiaolin Wang and Alexander W.A. Kellner. 2015. A New Toothed Pteranodontoid (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea) from the Jiufotang Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian) of China and comments on Liaoningopterus gui Wang and Zhou, 2003. Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. [Special Issue: RIO PTEROSAUR] 27(6); 782-795. DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2015.1033417

[PaleoMammalogy • 2015] Kimbetopsalis simmonsae • A New Taeniolabidoid Multituberculate (Mammalia) from the middle Puercan of the Nacimiento Formation, New Mexico, and A Revision of Taeniolabidoid Systematics and Phylogeny

Kimbetopsalis simmonsae
Williamson, Brusatte, Secord & Shelley, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12336 |

Multituberculates were amongst the most abundant and taxonomically diverse mammals of the late Mesozoic and the Palaeocene, reaching their zenith in diversity and body size in the Palaeocene. Taeniolabidoidea, the topic of this paper, includes the largest known multituberculates, which possess highly complex cheek teeth adapted for herbivory. A new specimen from the early Palaeocene (middle Puercan; biochron Pu2) of the Nacimiento Formation, New Mexico represents a new large-bodied taeniolabidoid genus and species, Kimbetopsalis simmonsae. A phylogenetic analysis to examine the relationships within Taeniolabidoidea that includes new information from Kimbetopsalis gen. et sp. nov. and gen. nov. and from new specimens of Catopsalis fissidens, first described here, and data from all other described North American and Asian taeniolabidoids. This analysis indicates that Catopsalis is nonmonophyletic and justifies our transfer of the basal-most taeniolabidoid ‘Catopsalisjoyneri to a new genus, Valenopsalis. Kimbetopsalis and Taeniolabis form a clade (Taeniolabididae), as do the Asian Lambdopsalis, Sphenopsalis, and possibly also Prionessus (Lambdopsalidae). Taeniolabidoids underwent a modest taxonomic radiation during the early Palaeocene of North America and underwent a dramatic increase in body size, with Taeniolabis taoensis possibly exceeding 100 kg. Taeniolabidoids appear to have gone extinct in North America by the late Palaeocene but the appearance of lambdopsalids in the late Palaeocene of Asia suggests that they dispersed from North America in the early to middle Palaeocene. 

Keywords: body size; dispersal; ecological recovery; mammalian radiation; multituberculata; palaeobiogeography; Palaeocene; San Juan Basin; Taeniolabididae; Taeniolabidoidea

Systematic palaeontology

Mammalia Linnaeus, 1758
Multituberculata Cope, 1884

Taeniolabidoidea Sloan & Van Valen, 1965
Taeniolabididae Granger & Simpson, 1929

Kimbetopsalis simmonsae gen. et sp. nov. (Figs 1, 2, Tables 1 and 2) 

Holotype: NMMNH P-69902 from locality L-9181.

The jaws of Kimbetopsalis simmonsae.

A reconstruction of Kimbetopsalis simmonsae, a rodent-like multituberculate mammal species discovered during a 2014 fossil hunting trip
Illustration: Sarah Shelley, University of Edinburgh

Type locality and horizon: The specimen was discovered in the lower Palaeocene part of the Nacimiento Formation of the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico, in the west flank of Kimbeto Wash, at locality 11 of Williamson (1996: fig. 18). It is from Fossil Horizon A and within the Hemithlaeus kowalevskianusTaeniolabis taoensis Biozone (H-T Zone) (Williamson, 1996). The vertebrate fauna from this horizon is considered part of the type faunas of the middle Puercan Interval Zone (Pu2) (Archibald et al., 1987; Williamson, 1996; Lofgren et al., 2004).

The west flank of Kimbeto Wash has yielded numerous taxa that are restricted to the H-T Zone, including Hemithlaeus kowalevskianus and Conacodon entoconus. These taxa are particularly abundant in H-T Zone faunas of the Nacimiento Formation, but are absent from the overlying Fossil Horizon B that yields the type faunas of the late Puercan Interval Zone (Pu3) (Williamson, 1996). Furthermore, no specimens of T. taoensis have been recovered from the west flank of Kimbeto Wash. This is important because the first occurrence of Taeniolabis defines the beginning of the Pu3 Interval Zone (Archibald et al., 1987; Lofgren et al., 2004). Although it does not in itself support a Pu2 age for the locality, the absence of Taeniolabis is further evidence that the west flank of Kimbeto Wash is not Pu3 in age (a time when other large taeniolabidids are known from the Nacimiento Formation). Specimen NMMNH P-69902 was found fragmented, but in close association, weathering from a silty mudstone in an area of low relief. There is no possibility that the specimen is float from a higher horizon and therefore we are confident that it is a member of the H-T Zone fauna, and thus is Pu2 in age.

Etymology: Kimbeto, for Kimbeto Wash; psalis, ‘cutting shears’ (Greek). Simmonsae, after Nancy Simmons, in recognition of her work on taeniolabidoid multituberculates.

Valenopsalis gen. nov.
Etymology: Named after the late Leigh Van Valen, one of the 20th century's great mammalian palaeontologists, who studied Cretaceous–Palaeogene multituberculates (including ‘Ca.’ joyneri) and was a colourful inspiration to T. E. W. (who fondly remembers Leigh's visit to the NMMNH collections when he was a graduate student) and S. L. B. (when he was an undergraduate student in Chicago).

Type species: Catopsalis joyneri Sloan & Van Valen, 1965.

Included species: Type species only.
Distribution: Early Puercan (Pu1) of eastern Montana.

The recovery of a new genus and species of large taeniolabidoid multituberculate, Ki. simmonsae, from the early Palaeocene (middle Puercan; Pu2) of the Nacimiento Formation prompted a revision of Taeniolabidoidea and an evaluation of their phylogeny and evolution. Our phylogenetic analysis of Taeniolabidoidea included all Asian and North American species referable to this clade. Owing to uncertainties over the choice of an appropriate outgroup we ran analyses using five different outgroups and found that trees were highly resolved using three (Cimo. gracilis, Men. robustus, and Mi. conus) of the five outgroups. In the highly resolved trees, species of the largest-bodied North American forms, Kimbetopsalis and Taeniolabis, consistently form a monophyletic clade as do species of the Asian Lambdopsalis, Sphenopsalis, and Prionessus. We here define Kimbetopsalis and Taeniolabis as the basis of Taeniolabididae and Lambdopsalis and Sphenopsalis as the basis of Lambdopsalidae.

This study underscores the extreme rapidity of development of large body size and the increase in dental complexity within taeniolabidoids within the first 800 Kyr of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction (Wilson et al., 2012; Williamson et al., 2014). Taeniolabidoids evolved extremely unusual and highly specialized, large, chisel-shaped incisors and massive, multicusped cheek teeth for grinding vegetation and attained large body masses, exceeding 20 kg. The shifts to larger body sizes and increased cusp complexity strongly suggest a shift toward herbivory, and possibly folivory.

Figure 6. Time-calibrated phylogeny based on the most-resolved consensus tree from our phylogenetic analyses. Each taxon is accompanied by a silhouette that illustrates the relative sizes resulting from our mass estimates (Table 4; skull length – m1 estimate).
The area of the silhouette is proportionate to the mass [ln(area) = 0.6667*ln(volume) + 0.231]. The time scale follows Ogg (2012). The placement of the Puercan faunas of the Nacimiento Formation is after Williamson et al. (2014). Asian Palaeocene mammal biochronology is after Ting et al. (2011). Fm., Formation. DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12336

Bubodens magnus, the largest multituberculate and largest mammal of the latest Cretaceous, probably represents the sole Cretaceous representative of Taeniolabidoidea. Taeniolabidoids of the earliest Palaeocene faunas of North America include V. joyneri, which our phylogenetic analyses found to be the basal-most taeniolabidoid. We find that Kimbetopsalis simmonsae is the basal-most member of Taeniolabididae and it provides a plausible progenitor for T. taoensis, which first appeared in the San Juan Basin within the next 200 Kyr.

Although taeniolabidoids disappeared from North America several million years before the end of the Palaeocene, they dispersed to Asia where they underwent a subsequent modest radiation towards the end of the Palaeocene, becoming extinct near the Palaeocene–Eocene boundary.

 Thomas E. Williamson, Stephen L. Brusatte, Ross Secord, and Sarah Shelley. 2015. A New Taeniolabidoid Multituberculate (Mammalia) from the middle Puercan of the Nacimiento Formation, New Mexico, and A Revision of Taeniolabidoid Systematics and Phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12336

Paleo Profile: Kimbetopsalis simmonsae via  @NGPhenomena
This massive furry rodent outlived the dinosaurs via @slashgear

Monday, October 5, 2015

[Botany • 2015] Musa nanensis Swangpol & Traiperm | กล้วยศรีน่าน • A New Banana (Musaceae) Species from Northern Thailand

กล้วยศรีน่าน (Kluai Si Nan)
Musa nanensis Swangpol & Traiperm

A new species of banana (Musaceae), Musa nanensis Swangpol & Traiperm, from Nan, Thailand, is described and illustrated. Based on vegetative features, M. nanensis could be superficially categorized as related to M. laterita; however, it possesses several unique floral characters from the rest of the genus Musa, especially its six tepals and anthers, each fused at the base. A key to banana species of northern Thailand, based on morphology, is provided. The plant was found in a single location and is threatened with extinction due to heavy deforestation in the region.

Keywords: Autapomorphic characters, floral morphology, leaf anatomy, morphological characters, syntepal

Distribution — Musa nanensis was collected from only one locality closed to the Thai-Lao border in Changwat Nan, Thailand. However, it is expected that this species will be found across the border in Laos PDR.

Ecology — The taxon was found at 835 m altitude in the dry evergreen forest, by streams in a valley in a lower mountainous forest. Its flowering time is year round.

Conservation — Musa nanensis is an extremely rare plant. Since the first collection in 2002 until 2012, it has been seen by the authors only at the type locality, where there are fewer than 50 plants. In addition, its habitat in the dry evergreen forest in Tambon Dong Phaya, Amphoe Bo Kluea of Changwat Nan is threatened by heavy deforestation and fragmentation. On the basis of IUCN (2014), the plant should be listed as critically endangered (CR), criteria D2, and therefore considered to be in need of urgent conservation.

Etymology — The new taxon was named Kluai Si Nan (กล้วยศรีน่าน) which means ‘banana pride of Nan,’ the northern province of Thailand where the specimens were originally discovered.

Sasivimon Chomchalow Swangpol, Paweena Traiperm, Jamorn Somana, Narongsak Sukkaewmanee, Prachaya Srisanga and Piyakaset Suksathan. 2015. Musa nanensis, A New Banana (Musaceae) Species from Northern Thailand.
 Systematic Botany. 40(2):426-432.  doi: 10.1600/036364415X688790

กล้วยศรีน่าน (Kluai Si Nan)
Musa nanensis Swangpol & Traiperm || วงศ์กล้วย (MUSACEAE)

กล้วยศรีน่านเป็นกล้วยชนิดใหม่ของโลกที่เพิ่งได้รับการตั้งชื่อและตีพิมพ์ในวารสารวิชาการทางพฤกษศาสตร์ระดับนานาชาติเมื่อต้นเดือนสิงหาคม 2558 ที่ผ่านมา กล้วยศรีน่านเป็นกล้วยป่าขนาดกลางสูงราว 180 ซม. ลักษณะที่โดดเด่นคือมีปลีสีแดงส้ม ก้านปลีขนานพื้นและโค้งตั้งขึ้น ลักษณะทางพฤกษศาสตร์ที่สำคัญอีกประการหนึ่งคือ มีเกสรเพศผู้ 6 อัน แตกต่างจากกล้วยชนิดอื่นในโลกที่มีเกสรเพศผู้ 5 อัน ผลของกล้วยศรีน่านมีเมล็ดสีดำแข็งจำนวนมาก รับประทานได้แต่เนื้อน้อยมาก กล้วยศรีน่านถูกพบในพื้นที่ป่าดิบแล้ง ในหุบเขาใกล้ลำธาร และพบเพียง 5-10 กอเท่านั้น อีกทั้งอยู่ในพื้นที่ป่าที่มีแนวโน้มจะถูกบุกรุกแผ้วถางทำลาย หากพิจารณาด้วยหลักเกณฑ์ของ สหภาพนานาชาติเพื่อการอนุรักษ์ธรรมชาติและทรัพยากรธรรมชาติ หรือ IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) พบว่าเป็นพืชที่มีความเสี่ยงขั้นวิกฤติต่อการสูญพันธุ์ กล้วยศรีน่านเป็นพืชชนิดแรกที่ตั้งชื่อให้จังหวัดน่าน โดยพบเป็นครั้งแรกที่อำเภอบ่อเกลือ จังหวัดน่าน และยังไม่พบในพื้นที่อื่นอีกเลย พิกัดที่พบจึงขอปกปิดไว้เพื่อความปลอดภัย

ขณะนี้มีการนำเข้ามาในห้องปฏิบัติเพื่อการขยายพันธุ์ด้วยวิธีเพาะเลี้ยงเนื้อเยื่อ โดยหวังว่าจะช่วยเพิ่มจำนวนต้นให้มากขึ้น กล้วยศรีน่านถูกพบเป็นครั้งแรกเมื่อปี พ.ศ. 2545 โดย ดร. ปรัชญา ศรีสง่า หัวหน้าส่วนหอพรรณไม้ สวนพฤกษศาสตร์สมเด็จพระนางเจ้าสิริกิติ์ฯ จากนั้น 10 ปีต่อมาได้แจ้งให้ ผู้ช่วยศาสตราจารย์ ดร. ศศิวิมล แสวงผล อาจารย์ประจำภาควิชาพฤกษศาสตร์ คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล เข้าไปตรวจสอบและพบว่าเป็นกล้วยชนิดใหม่ จึงได้รวบรวมข้อมูลเพิ่มเติมทั้งด้านสัณฐานวิทยา และกายวิภาคศาสตร์ โดยผู้ช่วยศาสตราจารย์ ดร. ปวีณา ไตรเพิ่ม เพื่อยืนยันความแตกต่างจากกล้วยป่าชนิดอื่น และตีพิมพ์ชื่อชนิดใหม่ในวารสารซิสเตมาติก โบตานี (Systematic Botany) ปีที่ 40 ฉบับที่ 2 เมื่อวันที่ 10 สิงหาคม 2558 

ทั้งนี้ในประเทศไทยมีกล้วยป่าราว 10 ชนิด เช่น กล้วยหก กล้วยบัวสีส้ม กล้วยศรีนรา กล้วยนวล กล้วยผา เป็นต้น กระจายพันธุ์อยู่ทุกภาคของประเทศไทย โดยเฉพาะบริเวณชายป่าบนเทือกเขาต่างๆ กล้วยศรีน่านเป็นชนิดที่ 11 ซึ่งก่อนหน้านี้เมื่อปี พ.ศ. 2551 อาจารย์ศศิวิมลและทีมสำรวจกล้วยของมหาวิทยาลัยมหิดลได้พบกล้วยชนิดใหม่ทางภาคตะวันตกของประเทศไทย และตั้งชื่อว่ากล้วยนาคราช (Musa serpentina Swangpol & Somana)

[Botany • 2014] Musa nagalandiana • A New Banana (Musaceae) Species from Nagaland, northeast India

Musa nagalandiana S. Dey & Gogoi, a new species of Musa sect. Musa, is described and illustrated from Zunheboto district, Nagaland, India based on morphological characteristics observed in the field. The new species is rare in the wild and found in tropical semi-evergreen forest on the bank of the river Doyang, in Zunheboto district of Nagaland. A key to M. nagalandiana and related taxa is provided.

Santanu Dey, N. S. Jamir, Rajib Gogoi, S. K. Chaturvedi, Hutoka Y. Jakha and Zubenthung P. Kikon. 2014. Musa nagalandiana sp. nov. (Musaceae) from Nagaland, northeast India.
Nordic Journal of Botany. 32(5); 584–588. DOI: 10.1111/njb.00516

Sunday, October 4, 2015

[Botany • 2013] Bulbophyllum nepalense • A New Species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from Nepal

Bulbophyllum nepalense   Raskoti & Ale


Bulbophyllum nepalense Raskoti & Ale (Orchidaceae) from Nepal is described and illustrated. Notes on the diagnostic characters used to distinguish it from the similar species Bulbophyllum retusiusculum are provided.

Raskoti, B.R. and R. Ale. 2013. A New Species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from Nepal. Journal of Botany. 70(2): 381-384. DOI: 10.1017/S0960428613000061

[Botany • 2013] Impatiens lohitensis • A New Species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India

Impatiens lohitensis R. Gogoi & S. Borah

 A new species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae), Impatiens lohitensis R. Gogoi & S. Borah is described and illustrated from Arunachal Pradesh, India. It is close to I. siculifer Hook.f. and I. stenantha Hook.f. but differs in perennial nature, bigger elliptic leaves, green flower bud without awn, bigger sized flower, green bigger floral bract, lateral sepals navicular, abaxial midvein of upper petal thickened, much longer spur, two red blotch at throat and bigger size of linear capsule.

KEY WORDS: Arunachal Pradesh, Impatiens, India, new species. 

Distribution: India: Arunachal Pradesh: Lohit District, after Udayak Pass way to Tidding.

Etymology: The species is collected from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh, hence the species epithet is given for its place of origin.

Ecology: The species grows along the side of the stream in the down part of shady hilly slops in
association with Elatostema sessile Forst., Pilea anisophylla Wedd., Impatiens siculifer Hook.f., Pollia hasskarlii Rao Rolla, Polygonum chinensis Houtt., Begonia palmata D. Don, Commelina paludosa Blume, Steudnera colocasiaefolia C. Koch. etc. 

R. Gogoi and S. Borah. 2013. Impatiens lohitensis, A New Species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Taiwania, 58(1): 15–19.

[Botany • 2011] Impatiens qingchengshanica • A Unique New Species (Balsaminaceae) from Southwestern China and its Phylogenetic Position

Impatiens qingchengshanica 
Y.-M. Yuan, Y. Song & X.-J. Ge

 Impatiens qingchengshanica Y.-M. Yuan, Y. Song & X.-J. Ge, sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It was collected from a broad-leaved forest on Sichuan Province’s Qingcheng Shan, Southwestern China. This species is unique in the genus for its specialized nodular (moniliform) and horizontal rootstock with conspicuously enlarged knots (1-3 cm in diameter) and long (3-5 cm), thin (2-3 mm in diameter) string. It resembles I. clavigera Hook. f. in terms of gross floral morphology. Impatiens qingchengshanica has oblong, elliptic or widely elliptic leaves and showy pink flowers. The lower sepal is funnel-form, ca. 4-4.5 cm deep, abruptly narrowed into a subulate spur ca. 2.5-3 cm long, straight, and only occasionally incurved in young buds. The left and right pairs of the lateral united petals are unequal in size thus the whole flower is oblique and asymmetrical. The lower petals of the lateral united petals are oblong and oblique unlike I. clavigera, which has obovate, lanceolate or oblanceolate leaves and bright yellow flowers. Its lower sepal is subsaccate, 2-3 cm deep, abruptly contracted into a narrow tubular spur which is 5-6 mm long, conspicuously incurved when flowering. The left and right pairs of the lateral united petals are almost equal in size, thus the whole flower is nearly symmetrical. The lower petals of the lateral united petals are dolabriform. The new species is also similar to I. omeiana Hook. f. and I. pritzelii Hook. f. in terms of rhizome, leaf and stem morphology, but the flower shape and bauplan are conspicuously different. Impatiens omeiana has enlarged tuberous rhizomes, yellow or pale yellow flowers with subsaccate to saccate lower sepals that gradually narrow into a short incurved spur, and dolabriform lower petals of the lateral united petals. Impatiens pritzelii has a procumbent tortuous subterranean stem with enlarged nodes, yellow or yellow-white flowers with saccate to widely saccate lower sepals which gradually narrow into a short incurved spur, and oblong or subdolabriform lower petals having a rounded apex. The new species is nested in the basal clade of the phylogentic tree of the genus, and thus represents one of the ancestral forms with important implications for understanding the evolution within the genus. Molecular phylogeny further indicated that nodular (moniliform) and tuberose rootstocks may have undergone multiple independent origins and parallel evolution within the genus adaptive to the seasonal dry habitats of the species.

Keywords: Balsaminaceae; Evolution; Impatiens qingchengshanica; New species.

Phenology. Flowering in July to September; fruiting in September to October.
Ecology. Under stories of sparse and dense broad-leafed forests on slopes, forest margins in moist places in valleys; 700-1,400 m.
Distribution. Sichuan, Southwestern China. It is so far known only from the type location and its vicinity, sparsely found in both front and rear hills of Qingchengshan Park.

Yong-Ming YUAN, Yi SONG and Xue-Jun GE. 2011. Impatiens qingchengshanica (Balsaminaceae), A Unique New Species from China and its Phylogenetic Position. Botanical Studies. 52: 225-230.

Wednesday, September 30, 2015

[Herpetology • 2015] Japalura vela • A New Species of Japalura (Squamata: Agamidae) from upper Lancang (Mekong) Valley of Eastern Tibet, China

Japalura vela   Wang, Jiang & Che, 2015
Sail Moutain Lizard or Sail Japalura | 帆背攀蜥 (Fan Bei Pan Xi)

Figure 1: Dorsolateral close-ups, dorsolateral overviews, and ventral overviews of Japalura vela sp. nov.:
The male holotype KIZ013801 (A, B, and C) and the female paratype KIZ013802 (D, E, and F) in life.
Images not to scale. ||  Photos by Kai WANG.
Figure 7: The microhabitat (A) and macrohabitat (B) of Japalura vela sp. nov.
at the type locality, Quzika, Tibet.  || Photos by Duan YOU.

A new species of the agamid genus Japalura is described based on 15 specimens from the upper Lancang (Mekong) Valley of eastern Tibet, PR China. Populations of the new species, Japalura vela sp. nov., were previously recognized as J. flaviceps. The new species is morphologically most similar to J. batangensis, J. micangshanensis, J. variegata, and J. zhaoermii, but is distinguished from the four species and all remaining congeners by the following combination of morphological characters: 1) small adult size (SVL 56–69 mm in males, 59–66 mm in females); 2) ratio of tail TAL/SVL 1.85–2.06; 3) ratio of hind limb HLL/SVL 0.72–0.81; 4) T4S 24 or 25; 5) concealed tympanum; 6) transverse gular fold present; 7) gular pouch present; 8) axillary fold present; 9) a pronounced, continuous, sail-like vertebral crest along length of body in males; 10) ground dorsal coloration black in males; 11) distinct gray transverse streaks on dorsal surface of head; 12) black radiated streaks around eyes; 13) distinct, black vermiculate stripes on ventral surface of head in both sexes; 14) a strongly jagged dorsolateral stripe from neck to base of tail on each side of vertebral crest in males; and 15) absence of gular spots in both sexes. General distribution patterns of the genus in the Hengduan Mountains region are also discussed.

Keywords:  distribution, Hengduan Mountains, Japalura, J. flaviceps, species complex

Japalura vela sp. nov. Wang, Jiang, Che (Figures 1–6)
Synonymies: Japalura yunnanensis Vogt, 1924: 338 
Japalura flaviceps Hu et al., 1987: 112 
Japalura flaviceps Pope, 1935: 467 
Japalura flaviceps Zhao and Jiang, 1977: 293 –298 
Japalura flaviceps Zhao et al., 1999: 111–115 
Japalura flaviceps Li et al., 2010: 115 
Japalura sp. A Manthey et al., 2012

Distribution and Ecology:  The new species is currently known only from the type locality (Figures 7–8), but it may be found in valleys of adjacent reaches along Lancang Rivers. As a terrestrial species, individuals were observed commonly in rocky areas or steppe-shrub habitat along the arid river valley (Figure 7). Adult males usually basked on high rocks, while adult females and juveniles stayed lower in the rock piles, suggesting possible niche partitioning among different age-groups and between different sexes. Males are territorial, in which the territory holder will perform vertical head-nodding movements and display gular pouch toward the invader, and physical contacts (biting and chasing) will happen if the invader refuses to leave. No territorial behaviors were seen among females or juveniles. Possible predations may come from snakes (Chinese Beauty Snake, Orthriophis taeniurus, KIZ013803, was collected from the same locality) and large birds ( Corvus sp., also commonly observed at this locality).

Etymology:  The Latin word vela means “sail”, which describes the shape of the pronounced and continuous vertebral crest as the diagnostic morphology of the males of the new species. Hence according to the Latin name, we suggest Sail Moutain Lizards or Sail Japalura as its English common name, and Fan Bei Pan Xi (帆背攀蜥 ) as its Chinese common name.

 Kai Wang, Ke Jiang, Gang Pan, Mian Hou, Cameron D. Siler and Jing Che. 2015. A New Species of Japalura (Squamata: Sauria: Agamidae) from upper Lancang (Mekong) Valley of Eastern Tibet, China. ASIAN HERPETOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 6(3):159-168.

[Herpetology • 2015] Hemidactylus yajurvedi • A New Rock Dwelling Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Chhattisgarh, east-central India

Hemidactylus yajurvedi
Murthy, Bauer, Lajmi, Agarwal & Giri, 2015


A distinct new species of gecko of the genus Hemidactylus is described from the Kanker district of Chhattisgarh State, east-central India. This large-sized (SVL average 81.33±13.40 to at least 98.0 mm) Hemidactylus is characterized by a dorsum with small granules, intermixed with 10–12 rows of irregularly arranged, slightly larger, rounded, weakly-keeled tubercles at midbody; 10–12 and 13–15 subdigital lamellae on the first and fourth digits, respectively, of both manus and pes; a single enlarged postcloacal tubercle on either side of the tail; 10–12 femoral pores on each thigh separated by 5–8 poreless scales; 12–14 supralabials and 10–12 infralabials.

Keywords: Reptilia, Hemidactylus yajurvedi sp. nov., H. aaronbaueri, cryptic species, Chhattisgarh, India

B.H.C.K. Murthy, A. M. Bauer, Aparna Lajmi, Ishan Agarwal and Varad Giri. 2015. A New Rock Dwelling Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Chhattisgarh, India. Zootaxa. 4021(2): 334–350. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4021.2.5

[Herpetology • 2015] Hydrophylax bahuvistara • A New Species of Fungoid Frog (Amphibia: Ranidae) from peninsular India

Hydrophylax bahuvistara
Padhye, Jadhav, Modak, Nameer & Dahanukar, 2015

 Hydrophylax bahuvistara, a new species of fungoid frog, is described from peninsular India. It can be separated from its congeners based on a combination of characters including wider head, outline of snout in dorsal view truncated, finger and toe tips without lateroventral groove, foot moderately webbed, metatarsals of 4th and 5th toes closely set, outer metatarsal tubercle small, foot length less than or equal to half of snout vent length, dorsal parts of shank without glandular folds and sparse horny spinules, and heels touch each other when the legs are folded at right angles to the body. Genetically, H. bahuvistara forms a monophyletic group with H. malabaricus as a sister clade separated by a raw distance of 4.0 to 4.5% in the 16s rRNA gene. Morphometrically, H. bahuvistara forms a significantly different cluster from H. malabaricus and H. gracilis in Discriminant Analysis.

Keywords: Anura, molecular taxonomy, multivariate analysis, taxonomy.

Hydrophylax bahuvistara sp. nov.
(Images 1–4)
Hylarana malabarica haplogroup 1: Biju et al. (2014)

Common name: Wide-spread Fungoid Frog.

Etymology: The species is named bahuvistara (Sanskrit: ‘bahu’ = wide, ‘vistara’ = spread) owing to its wide distribution in peninsular India.

Distribution: Type material of the species comes from a wide distribution in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra and eastern Maharashtra, however, based on genetic data available in Kurabayashi et al. (2005), Biju et al. (2014) and Hasan et al. (2014) and localities for additional material from this study and distributional data for Hydrophylax malabarica Haplogroup 1 from Biju et al. (2014), the species is widespread in peninsular India distributed in Maharashra, Karnataka, Goa and Madhya Pradesh (Table 3; Fig. 4).

Figure 4. Distribution map for Hydrophylax bahuvistara sp. nov. and H. malabaricus.

Habitat, ecology and natural history: Hydrophylax bahuvistara sp. nov. is usually found near human habitation and in agricultural fields. It is also found on the forest floor and near ephemeral or permanent water bodies, but mainly during breeding season. The eggs are laid in shallow water in the paddy fields or on the banks of small ponds or lakes. Calling behavior of an adult male is shown in movie clip (Appendix C). Adults usually gather in large numbers at potential breeding habitats. A loud chorus of calling males is heard at such places (Appendix D). The loud chorus is audible form a distance of up to a kilometer on quiet nights. Occasionally, smaller groups of adult males are also seen calling from the periphery of temporary rain water pools.

Anand D. Padhye, Anushree Jadhav, Nikhil Modak, P.O. Nameer and Neelesh Dahanukar. 2015. Hydrophylax bahuvistara, A New Species of Fungoid Frog (Amphibia: Ranidae) from peninsular India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 7(11); 7744–7760. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.o4252.7744-60