Tuesday, July 28, 2015

[Ichthyology • 2015] Why is Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Teleostei: Osphronemidae) reported from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Pakistan?


FIGURE 1 (a) Pseudosphromenus cupanus, NRM 40344, 27.1 mm SL, India, Kolkata, ornamental fish farm; (b) P. dayi, NRM 12069, 22.7 mm SL, India, Kerala, Kottayam; (c) P. dayi, living specimen in aquarium, ca 40 mm SL; (d) Badis badis, image used as illustration of Pseudosphromenus cupanus in Rahman & Ruma (2007), slightly adjusted. Photo by Gawsia W. Chowdhury

Abstract

The native distribution of the small labyrinth fish species Pseudosphromenus cupanus includes southern India and Sri Lanka. According to literature it has a range including also Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Indonesia (Sumatra) but there are no voucher specimens or reliable observations from those areas. The distribution record of Pcupanus was inflated partly by including Pdayi as a synonym. Pseudosphronemus dayi is native to the Western Ghats in India, but the origin of the aquarium importation in 1907 was reported as both Cochin (=Kochi) and Malacca (=Malaysia), the latter locality obviously in error. The basis for the Sumatra record is an obviously mislabeled sample of Pdayi from Pulau Weh close to Sumatra. The basis for reporting the species from Pakistan, Myanmar or Bangladesh could not be located. Misidentified museum specimens from Myanmar and Pakistan identified as P. cupanus were never published on. Pseudosphromenus cupanus has been considered recently to be extinct in Bangladesh, but in fact it never occurred there.

Keywords: Asia, Freshwater, Geographical distribution, Threat status




Kullander, Sven O., MD. M. Rahman, Michael Norén & Abdur R. Mollah. 2015. Why is Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Teleostei: Osphronemidae) reported from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Pakistan? Zootaxa. 3990(4): 575–583. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3990.4.6

Monday, July 27, 2015

[Botany • 2015] Drosera magnifica • The Largest New World Sundew (Droseraceae), discovered on Facebook


Drosera magnifica
P.M. Gonella, F. Rivadavia & A. Fleischmann

Drosera magnifica
Illustrations: Rogério Lupo
carnivorousockhom.blogspot.com

Abstract

Drosera magnifica, a microendemic sundew discovered on a single mountain top in eastern Minas Gerais (southeastern Brazil), is described here as a new species for science. Regarded as the largest New World sundew and one of the three largest Drosera species, it was just recently discovered through photographs posted on the social network Facebook. A detailed description, remarks on ecology, habitat, and conservation, a distribution map, line drawings, and photographs are provided, as well as a comparison between the related taxa (Drosera graminifolia and D. spiralis). The species is considered Critically Endangered, according to the IUCN Red List categories and criteria.

Keywords: carnivorous plants, Critically Endangered, Drosera graminifolia, microendemic, new species, Eudicots, Brazil







Paulo Minatel Gonella, Fernando Rivadavia and Andreas Fleischmann. 2015. Drosera magnifica (Droseraceae): The Largest New World Sundew, discovered on Facebook. Phytotaxa. 220 (3): 257–267. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.220.3.4


Sunday, July 19, 2015

[Herpetology • 2015] Morphological and Molecular Review of the Gekko Diversity of Laos with Descriptions of Three New Species from Khammouane Province, central Laos


FIGURE 5. Map showing the type locality (black circle) of three new species of Gekko in Khammouane Province, central Laos.
Fig. 2: Gekko bonkowskiiFig. 8: G. sengchanthavongi; Fig. 10: G. boehmei 
Luu, Calame, Nguyen, Le & Ziegler, 2015
DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3986.3.2

Abstract
A review of the taxonomy, phylogeny, zoogeography, and ecology of the genus Gekko in Laos is provided based on morphological and molecular datasets. Three new species, which are both morphologically distinctive and molecularly divergent from described congeners, are described from Khammouane Province, central Laos: two members of the G. japonicus group, Gekko bonkowskii sp. nov. and Gekko sengchanthavongi sp. nov., and another member of the G. petricolus group, Gekko boehmei sp. nov. Gekko bonkowskii sp. nov. is closely related to the recently described G. thakekensis, which also occurs in Khammouane Province. Gekko sengchanthavongi sp. nov. is supported as a sister taxon to G. scientiadventura and Gekko boehmei sp. nov. is recovered as a sister species to G. petricolus. In addition, a key to the currently recognized members of the genus Gekko from Laos is provided.

Keywords: Gekko, morphology, taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, Khammouane Province, Laos, karst forest


Introduction 
Rösler et al. (2011) provided a review of the taxonomy, phylogeny, and zoogeography of all currently recognized Gekko species based on morphological and molecular datasets. These authors assigned the members of the genus Gekko to six species groups, namely the G. gecko, G. japonicus, G. monarchus, G. petricolus, G. porosus, and G. vittatus groups. However, the genus Gekko Laurent, 1768 still remains a comparatively poorly researched lizard group, as new species are continuously described. One hot spot of Gekko diversity within Southeast Asia is Vietnam, with 13 currently recognized species: G. adleri Nguyen, Wang, Yang, Lehmann, Le, Ziegler & Bonkowski, G. badenii Szczerbak & Nekrasova, G. canaensis Ngo & Gamble, G. canhi Rösler, Nguyen, Doan, Ho & Ziegler, G. gecko (Linnaeus), G. grossmanni Günther, G. palmatus Boulenger, G. reevesii (Gray, 1831), G. russelltraini Ngo, Bauer, Wood & Grismer, G. scientiadventura Rösler, Ziegler, Vu, Herrmann & Böhme, G. takouensis Ngo & Gamble, G. truongi Phung & Ziegler, and G. vietnamensis Nguyen (see Rösler et al. 2011; Phung & Ziegler 2011; Nguyen et al. 2013). In comparison, the diversity of Gekko in Laos is still underestimated, with only five recognized species so far, namely Gekko gecko (Linnaeus), G. scientiadventura Rösler, Ziegler, Vu, Hermann & Böhme (Teynié et al. 2004), G. petricolus Taylor (Bain & Hurley 2011), G. thakhekensis Luu, Calame, Nguyen, Le, Bonkowski & Ziegler, and G. aaronbaueri Ngo, Pham, Phimvohan, David & Teynié (see Table 1).

During our recent field work in central Laos between 2013 and 2014, three unnamed Gekko populations were found in the karst forest of Khammouane Province. Two of them, from the karst forests around Bualapha and Thakhek towns, could be assigned to the Gekko japonicus group sensu Rösler et al. (2011) based on the following morphological characters: size moderate (SVL 58.2–99.2 mm); nares touching rostral; 0–21 dorsal tubercle rows at midbody; 0–32 precloacal pores; 1–4 postcloacal tubercles present; weakly developed webbing between fingers and toes; the absence of lateral fold tubercles; enlarged subcaudals; dorsal surface with blotches and bands (see Rösler et al. 2011; Nguyen et al. 2013; Luu et al. 2014). The third population from Bualapha town revealed to be a representative of the Gekko petricolus group sensu Rösler et al. (2011) based on the following morphological characters: size moderate (SVL 82.9–108.5 mm); nares in contact with rostral; three nasals; postmentals relatively large; dorsal tubercle rows 8–18; precloacal pores 8–15; postcloacal tubercles 1–3; webbing between fingers and toes absent; hind limb tubercles present; lateral fold tubercles absent; subcaudals enlarged; dorsal pattern of head and body more or less symmetrically blotched (see Rösler et al. 2011). However, all three taxa are clearly distinguished from the remaining species of the Gekko japonicus and Gekko petricolus species groups by a combination of differing morphological features together with molecular phylogenetic divergence based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene (approximately 6.8 to 9.0 %). We thus describe these taxa as new species.

Gekko bonkowskii sp. nov. 

Etymology. The new Gekko species is named after Professor Dr. Michael Bonkowski from the Zoological Institute, University of Cologne, Germany to acknowledge his engagement for herpetological and ecological research in the Indochina region. We suggest as common names: Bonkowski’s Gecko (English), Kap Ke Bonkowski (Laotian), and Bonkowskis Gecko (German).

Natural history. Specimens of Gekko bonkowskii were found at night between 20:00 and 21:00 on the tree trunk of shrubs, about 1.0–1.5 m above the ground, near the entrance of a karst cave at an elevation of 146 m a.s.l. Surrounding habitat was secondary forest of small hardwood and shrubs near a village (ca. 20 m) and about 40 m from the main road. The crepuscular or nocturnal new species co-occurs with at least two other gecko species in the same karstic microhabitat: Gekko gecko and the recently described bent-toed gecko Cyrtodactylus jaegeri (Luu et al. 2014). We also found the large huntsman spider species Heteropoda maxima (Jaeger) in the immediate vicinity of the observed gecko species (Fig. 6).


Gekko sengchanthavongi sp. nov. 

Etymology. We name the new species in honour of Mr. Sinnasone Sengchanthavong, Natural Resources and Environment Department of Khammouane Province, Laos, in recognition of his great support of our field research in Hin Nam No NPA. As common names, we suggest Sengchanthavong’s Gecko (English), Kap Ke Sengchanthavong (Laotian), and Sengchanthavongis Gecko (German).
Natural history. Specimens of G. sengchanthavongi were collected on karst walls at night from 20:00 to 21:30 during small rain, ca. 1.5–4 m above the ground, at an elevation of ca. 210 m a.s.l. The surrounding area was disturbed secondary forest (Fig. 8).



Gekko boehmei sp. nov. 

Etymology. The specific epithet honors Professor Dr. Wolfgang Böhme from the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK), Bonn, Germany to acknowledge his great contributions to herpetological research. In particular we dedicate the new species to Wolfgang on the occasion of his 70th birthday. We suggest as common names: Boehme’s Gecko (English), Kap Ke Boehme (Laotian), and Böhmes Gecko (German).

Natural history. The specimens of Gekko boehmei were collected on karst walls between 20:00 and 21:00 after heavy rain, from 1.5 to 3 m above the forest floor, at an elevation of 196 m. The location was close to rice fields and about 100 m distant from the main road (Fig. 10).


Key to members of the genus Gekko reported from Laos 

1     SVL > 160 mm; nares in contact with rostral only; iris yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .G. gecko gecko 
1’    SVL < 160 mm; nares in contact with rostral and first supralabial; iris not yellow   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
2     SVL < 80 mm, dorsal tubercles absent . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
2’    SVL >80 mm, dorsal tubercles present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . .   7
3     Interorbitals 41–51; scale rows around midbody 139–143   . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. scientiadventura
3’    Less than 41 interorbitals; less than 139 scale rows around midbody  . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . .   4
4     Scale rows around midbody 120–135 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. sengchanthavongi sp. nov.
4’    Less than 120 scale rows around midbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . .   5
5     Interorbitals 34–37; scale rows around midbody 98–104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .G. aaronbaueri
5’    Less than 34 interorbitals; more than 104 scale rows around midbody  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
6     SVL 79 mm; interorbitals 26–27; scale rows around midbody 110–116, praecloacal pores 1–5; irregular blotches  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  G. thakhekensis
6’    SVL 69 mm; interorbitals 22–26; scale rows around midbody 117; praecloacal pores 6, regular blotches  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . .G. bonkowskii sp. nov.
7     SVL 101 mm; interorbitals 36–38; scale rows around midbody 152–156 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. petricolus
7’    SVL 95 mm; interorbitals 27–32; scale rows around midbody 104–114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. boehmei sp. nov.


Luu, Vinh Q., Thomas Calame, Truong Q. Nguyen, Minh D. Le and Thomas Ziegler. 2015. Morphological and Molecular Review of the Gekko Diversity of Laos with Descriptions of Three New Species. Zootaxa. 3986(3): 279–306. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3986.3.2

[Botany • 2015] Nine New Zingiber Species (Zingiberaceae) from Vietnam


Zingiber lecongkietii Škorničk. & H.Đ.Trần
A. Habit. B. Pseudostem and detail of ligules (front and back view). C. Inflorescence (side view). D. Inflorescence (top view). E. Flower (front view).
Photo: Jana Leong-Škorničková.


Abstract

Nine new Zingiber species from Vietnam are reported here. Of these, Z. lecongkietii belongs to the sect. Cryptanthium, five species, Z. atroporphyreus, Z. cardiocheilum, Z. castaneum, Z. mellis and Z. plicatum, are terminally flowering species belonging to the sect. Dymczewiczia, and three species, Z. discolor, Z. microcheilum and Z. yersinii, belong to sect. Zingiber. Detailed descriptions, colour plates and preliminary IUCN assessments are given for all species. As the five terminally flowering novelties more than double the previously known number of species in the Z. sect. Dymczewiczia in Vietnam, a key to this section is provided.

Keywords: Zingiber atroporphyreus, Z. cardiocheilum, Z. castaneum, Z. discolor, Z. lecongkietii, Z. mellis, Z. microcheilum, Z. plicatum, Z. yersinii


Jana Leong-Skornickova, Quốc Bình Nguyễn, Hữu Đăng Trần, Otakar Šída, Romana Rybková and Bá Vương Trương. 2015. Nine New Zingiber Species (Zingiberaceae) from Vietnam. Phytotaxa. 219(3): 201–220. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.219.3.1



Friday, July 17, 2015

[Herpetology • 2015] Platysaurus attenboroughi • A New Species of Spectacularly Coloured Flat Lizard Platysaurus (Squamata: Cordylidae: Platysaurinae) from southern Africa


Platysaurus attenboroughi
  Whiting, Branch, Pepper & Keogh, 2015
Attenborough’s Flat Lizard | Attenborough se Platakkedis || DOI: 11646/zootaxa.3986.2.2 || WhitingLab.com

Abstract
We describe a new species of flat lizard (Platysaurus attenboroughi sp. nov.) from the Richtersveld of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and the Fish River Canyon region of southern Namibia. This species was formerly confused with P. capensis from the Kamiesberg region of Namaqualand, South Africa. Genetic analysis based on one mtDNA and two nDNA loci found Platysaurus attenboroughi sp. nov. to be genetically divergent from P. capensis and these species can also be differentiated by a number of scalation characters, coloration and their allopatric distributions. To stabilize the taxonomy the type locality of Platysaurus capensis A. Smith 1844 is restricted to the Kamiesberg region, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Keywords: Reptilia, southern Africa, lizard, new species, reptile, Platysaurus attenboroughi sp. nov., Platysaurus capensis



Platysaurus attenboroughi sp. nov.
English: Attenborough’s Flat Lizard
Afrikaans: Attenborough se Platakkedis

Synonymy. Platysaurus capensis (part). FitzSimons, 1935: 535; 1943: 473; Loveridge, 1944: 97; Rose, 1950: 155; 1962: 156; Broadley, 1978: 157; Branch, 1998: 165; Van Wyk & Mouton, 1996: 117; Whiting, 2014: 214.

Distribution. Along the lower Orange River from Goodhouse to the Richtersveld, extending north into Namibia and recorded from the Hunsberg, Huamsib and Ploegberg mountains and the Fish River Canyon (Figure 1).

Habitat and climate. Platysaurus attenboroughi sp. nov. occurs in the arid-subtropical region of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and southern Namibia and specifically within the Gariep Desert Bioregion (Mucina & Rutherford, 2006). This is an arid area characterized by low and erratic summer rainfall. Summers are typically hot and dry. Like all flat lizards, they are dependent on rock (mostly granite in this area) and take refuge in narrow rock fissures where they can escape suboptimal temperatures and predators. These areas are largely devoid of significant vegetation bar the occasional fig tree (Ficus) or succulent. For more detailed descriptions of climate, vegetation and topography see Mucina & Rutherford (2006).

Natural history and behaviour. In South Africa, it is mainly restricted to the Richtersveld region (Bauer & Branch, 2001; Whiting, 2014). There it is widespread and common in boulder-strewn areas and on broad rock faces, often far from river courses (e.g. Tierhoek). It does not form the high density populations recorded for P. broadleyi (MJW unpubl. data). All Platysaurus have a fixed clutch of two eggs (Broadley, 1978). The reproductive cycles of P. capensis, P. broadleyi and P. attenboroughi sp. nov. were collectively studied when these were considered a single species (Van Wyk & Mouton, 1996). The minimum size at sexual maturity is 64 mm (sex not specified); eggs are likely laid in summer (November–December) (Van Wyk & Mouton, 1996). While we know
very little about the diet of P. attenboroughi sp. nov., the closely related P. broadleyi is an omnivore and lives in similar habitat. The marked sexual dichromatism suggests a classic sexual selection system in which males compete heavily for females, as is the case in P. broadleyi (Whiting et al., 2003; Whiting et al., 2006). Males do have UV-reflective throats, which suggests a role of this colour signal in either settling contests (as in P. broadleyi) or in mate choice, although this remains to be tested. In the two males we measured, their throats had violet and blue and less pure UV than we would typically see in adult male P. broadleyi (Figure 5) (Whiting et al., 2006). Measurement of spectral reflectance in additional individuals is necessary for a proper comparison.

Etymology. We name this new species in honour of Sir David F. Attenborough (Fig. 3), in recognition of his immense contribution to the public understanding and appreciation of animals, plants, ecosystems and nature in general. David Attenborough made flat lizards, specifically the closely related Platysaurus broadleyi, famous in the BBC documentary series Life in Cold Blood.




Whiting, Martin J., William R. Branch, Mitzy Pepper & J. S. Keogh. 2015. A New Species of Spectacularly Coloured Flat Lizard Platysaurus (Squamata: Cordylidae: Platysaurinae) from southern Africa. Zootaxa. 3986(2): 173–192. DOI: 11646/zootaxa.3986.2.2

New African flat lizard named for David Attenborough  http://whitinglab.com/?p=4930

  


Thursday, July 16, 2015

[Paleontology • 2015] Zhenyuanlong suni • A Large, Short-armed, Winged Dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of China and Its Implications for Feather Evolution


Zhenyuanlong suni  Lü & Brusatte, 2015

The famous ‘feathered dinosaurs’ from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, northeastern China, include several dromaeosaurids, which are among the closest relatives of birds. Most of these are small-bodied taxa with long arms and broad wings comprised of vaned feathers, but a single specimen (the holotype of Tianyuraptor) belongs to a much larger individual with reduced forelimbs, which unfortunately lacks any preserved integument. We describe a new specimen of large-bodied, short-armed Liaoning dromaeosaurid, which we designate as a new genus and species, Zhenyuanlong suni. The integument is well preserved and provides the first evidence of feather morphologies and distribution in a short-armed (and probably non-volant) dromaeosaurid, indicating that these rare and aberrant taxa had large wings consisting of pennaceous feathers on the arms and long pennaceous feathers on the tail very similar to their smaller and longer-armed relatives, but potentially lacked vaned feathers on the legs. Zhenyuanlong adds yet more diversity to the Liaoning dromaeosaurid fauna, helps further reveal a distinct short-armed bauplan among dromaeosaurids, and illuminates previously-unrecognized homoplasy that complicates dromaeosaurid phylogeny and suggests that the Liaoning taxa may not have formed their own clade.


An artist’s impression of the new short-armed and winged feathered dinosaur Zhenyuanlong suni found in China and from the early Cretaceous period (125m years ago).
illustration: Chuang Zhao || doi: 10.1038/srep11775

Figure 1: The holotype of the large-bodied, short-armed Liaoning dromaeosaurid Zhenyuanlong suni gen et. sp. nov. (JPM-0008).


Systematic palaeontology
Dinosauria Owen 1842. 
Saurischia Seeley 1887. 

Theropoda Marsh 1881. 
Coelurosauria Huene 1914. 

Maniraptora Gauthier 1986. 
Dromaeosauridae Matthew and Brown 1922. 

Zhenyuanlong suni gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology: Long”, from the Chinese Pinyin, means dragon. The generic and specific names are in honor of Mr. Zhenyuan Sun, who secured the specimen for study.

Holotype: A nearly complete skeleton with skull and lower jaws preserved (JPM-0008), curated at the Jinzhou Paleontlogical museum. It is likely a sub-adult, as neural arches and centra are not fused in some anterior dorsal vertebrae and the sacral vertebrae, and the anterior sacral vertebrae are not completely fused to each other. The individual is fairly mature, however, as the more posterior sacrals are fused to each other and the neural arches and centra of the cervical vertebra, caudal vertebrae, and some dorsal vertebrae are fused.

Type Locality and Horizon: Sihedang of Jianchang County, Liaoning Province; Yixian Formation


Figure 4: The integument of the large-bodied, short-armed Liaoning dromaeosaurid Zhenyuanlong suni gen et. sp. nov. (JPM-0008).
(A) overview of the skeleton with regions of integument indicated with grey highlight; (B) proximal tail; (C) left forearm; (D) right forearm; (E) closeup of coverts on right forearm.

Figure 5: Phylogenetic relationships of Zhenyuanlong suni among dromaeosaurid theropods.





Junchang Lü and Stephen L. Brusatte. 2015. A Large, Short-armed, Winged Dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of China and Its Implications for Feather Evolution. Scientific Reports. 5, 11775 doi: 10.1038/srep11775



Paleo Profile: Zhenyuanlong suni http://on.natgeo.com/1f7Bw3q via @ngphenomena
Zhenyuanlong suni: biggest ever winged dinosaur is found in China http://gu.com/p/4ayjn/stw


Wednesday, July 15, 2015

[Botany • 2015] Hoya yingjiangensis • A New Campanulate-flowered Species (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideaea) from Yunnan, China


Hoya yingjiangensis

Abstract
Hoya yingjiangensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from Yunnan Province, China, is described and illustrated. This species possesses a large campanulate corolla, but is distinguished from all the other species of Hoya with similar corollas by the peduncle annual, deciduous, and the inflorescence single-flowered. The provisional IUCN assessment of ‘Data Deficient’ for H. yingjiangensis is provided.

Keywords: annual deciduous, Hoya collettii, IUCN, single flower, Eudicots, China




Jingfeng Zhang, Lin Bai, Nianhe Xia and Zeqiu Peng. 2015. Hoya yingjiangensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideaea), A New Campanulate-flowered Species from Yunnan, China. Phytotaxa. 219(3): 283–288. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.219.3.8

首次在我国发现大钟形花冠球兰 [First discovered large bell-shaped corolla Hoya in China]


[Herpetology • 2015] Cnemaspis rajabasa • A New Species of Cnemaspis (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from southern Sumatra, Indonesia


Cnemaspis rajabasa
Amarasinghe, Harvey, Riyanto & Smith, 2015

ABSTRACT

We describe a new species of Cnemaspis from southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The new species is the first Cnemaspis reported from Sumatra and is a large (52.6–58.7 mm in snout–vent length [SVL]) nocturnal species. A combination of the following characters distinguishes the new species from all other Southeast Asian congeners: adults reaching 58.7 mm SVL; supralabials 13 or 14; infralabials 11 or 12; tricarinate ventrals; precloacal pores absent; moderately prominent, randomly arranged, dorsal tubercles; 20 or 21 paravertebral tubercles; no tubercles on lower flanks; caudal tubercles encircling tail; subcaudals keeled; the median row of subcaudals not enlarged; two postcloacal tubercles on each side of tail base; no enlarged femoral, subtibial, or submetatarsal scales; subtibial scales keeled; 28–34 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; dark and light caudal bands distinct in both sexes. We tentatively assign the new species to the Cnemaspis kendallii group of the Southern Sunda clade of recent phylogenetic analyses.

Key words: Cnemaspis rajabasa sp. nov., Geckoes, Lampung, Sundaland




A.A. Thasun Amarasinghe, Michael B. Harvey, Awal Riyanto and Eric N. Smith. 2015. A New Species of Cnemaspis (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia.
Herpetologica. 71(2); 160–167. DOI: 10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-14-00034

Monday, July 13, 2015

[Botany • 2011] Begonia afromigrata • Pliocene Intercontinental Dispersal from Africa to Southeast Asia highlighted by the New Species of Begonia sect. Tetraphila (Begoniaceae) from Laos and Thailand


Begonia afromigrata J.J. de Wilde
Fig. 1. Habit and morphology of Begonia afromigrata: A, upper leaf surface; B, lower leaf surface; C, male inflorescence; D, habit; E, male flower; F, androecium (top, side, and bottom view); G, female flower; H, side view of female flower and ovary.
All based on Rodda & Simonsson MR106 & M R107. || de Wilde et al. 2011

Abstract
A new Begonia species from Laos and Thailand is described. It belongs to Begonia sect. Tetraphila, along with 30 other species which are all endemic to Africa. This is the first record of any of the 65 currently accepted sections in Begonia transgressing continental borders. A dated molecular phylogeny places the split of the new Asian species from its African congeners during the late Miocene to the early Pleistocene. As the species is a hygromesophilous epiphyte limited to tropical forest, no suitable corridor for migration existed during that time and the cause of the Afro-Asian disjunction probably is a long-distance dispersal event. The discovery of Begonia afromigrata emphasises the importance of chance in the assembly of tropical floras.

Keywords: Begonia sect. Tetraphila; long-distance dispersal; phylogeny 

Habitat and ecology. – Without exception in field notes the plant is described as epiphytic, growing between 5 and 15 m above ground level. It has been noted as growing on a Spondias species (Anacardiaceae; P. Tribune, pers. comm.). Usually collected on dead trees or fallen branches in evergreen forest (more rarely deciduous forest) on limestone, between 600 m and 1900 m altitude. Found more often on tree trunks than smaller branches. Plants cultivated from cuttings always produce one or more male inflorescences first, followed later by female inflorescences.


de Wilde, J.J.F.E., Hughes, M., Rodda M. & Thomas D.C. 2011. Pliocene Intercontinental Dispersal from Africa to Southeast Asia highlighted by the New Species Begonia afromigrata (Begoniaceae). Taxon 60: 1685-1692.

[Botany • 2014] Boesenbergia purpureorubra • A New Species of Boesenbergia (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand


Boesenbergia purpureorubra
Mood & L.M.Prince

ABSTRACT
Boesenbergia purpureorubra Mood & L.M.Prince is described and illustrated.
Boesenbergia longipes (King & Prain ex Ridl.) Schltr. is noted as a new record for Thailand
based on C. Maknoi T38 (PSU, QBG).

Keywords: Boesenbergia, Thailand, Zingiberaceae


Fig. 1. Boesenbergia purpureorubra Mood & L.M.Prince.
Ink line drawing with watercolour of the type plant. (Drawn by Linda Ann Vorobik).

Taxonomy

Boesenbergia purpureorubra Mood & L.M.Prince, sp. nov.

Boesenbergiae pulcherrimae (Wall.) Kuntze similis, planta minore c. 40 cm alta, caule breviore c. 6 cm longo pagina corrugatissima atro purpureorubro, petiolis longioribus c. 3–8 cm longis differt. 

TYPE: Cultivated in Hawaii, USA, 1 August 2014, Mood 14P19 (holotype BKF; isotype AAU). Originally from Thailand, Ranong Province, E. of Khao Niwet, 09° 57.506'N 98°39.134'E, 880 m asl, evergreen forest, 24 August 2011, Mood & Vatcharakorn 3106, cultivated as M3106 (Fig. 1-3)

Boesenbergia longipes auct. non Schltr.: Sirirugsa, Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 40: 76
(1992). 

Distribution. Peninsular Thailand.
Ecology. This species is found in evergreen forest between 50-300 m on soils derived from granite or sandstone.

Phenology. In cultivation in Hawaii, flowering begins in late June and continues through October. Flowers open in the morning and close early the following day. Observations in the wild are similar.

Etymology. Named for the purple-red colour of the leafless sheaths and lamina underside.


 J.D. Mood, J.F. Veldkamp and L.M. Prince. 2014. A New Species and A New Record of Boesenbergia (Zingiberaceae) for Thailand. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 66(2): 207–214.

Saturday, July 11, 2015

[Mammalogy • 2015] Rediscovery of the Dinagat Bushy-tailed Cloud Rat Crateromys australis (Musser, Heaney & Rabor, 1985) (Mammalia: Rodentia: Muridae) from Dinagat Island, Philippines


Image 2. Dinagat Bushy-Tailed Cloud Rat Crateromys australis photographed during our observation by still camera (Canon EOS 300) (a) and video camera (Sony HDR-SR11) (b); N.B. general features, darker dorsal and lighter ventral pelage colours and, especially, the diagnostic bi-coloured tail.

Abstract
The Dinagat Bushy-tailed Cloud Rat Crateromys australis belongs to the group of Cloud Rats, arboreal and folivorous nocturnal rodents endemic to the forests of the Philippines. The species, endemic to a small island Dinagat in the Philippines, was discovered and captured in 1975. Since then, despite repeated surveys, no specimen was found until 2012. It is listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN Red List and was even believed to be extinct. Finally, Dinagat Bushy-tailed Cloud Rat was rediscovered in January 2012 and its presence confirmed on Dinagat Island. The rediscovery of this species underlines the local, national and international importance of Dinagat Island (or Dinagat-Siargao cluster of islands), as the most distinct subcentre of species endemism within the Greater Mindanao Faunal Region. Unfortunately, only one locally protected area exists on the whole island and none of the last remaining native forest habitats on Dinagat are currently protected at the national level. Mining and habitat destruction constitute a serious threat to this species. We believe that this rediscovery may provide some important and timely impetus and urgency to the need for a more rational, scientifically-based and island-wide, development program on Dinagat by also incorporating an island/region-wide biodiversity conservation strategy that would help ensure the effective, longer-term protection of the larger majority of the few remaining natural habitats in this region.

Keywords: Asian Musk Shrew­, Cloud Rat, Crateromys australis, Dinagat, Philippines, Philippine Cloud Rats Conservation Programme, Tarsier.


Citation: Řeháková, M., V. Řehák & W.L.R. Oliver. 2015. Rediscovery of the Dinagat Bushy-tailed Cloud Rat Crateromys australis (Musser, Heaney & Rabor, 1985) (Mammalia: Rodentia: Muridae) from Dinagat Island, Philippines.
Journal of Threatened Taxa.
7(8): 7428–7435. DOI: 10.11609/JoTT.o4226.7428-35

Dinagat bushy-tailed Cloud Rat (Crateromys australis): Two-foot-long cloud rat rediscovered after missing for forty years in the Philippines http://news.mongabay.com/2012/0417-hance_dinagatisland.html via @mongabay


Czech Abstract: 
Velemyš dinagatská Crateromys australis patří do skupiny velemyší, stromových listožravých nočních hlodavců endemicky žijících ve filipínských lesích. Tento druh, endemit ostrova Dinagat, byl objeven a chycen v roce 1975. Přestože po něm od té doby pátralo několik expedic, byl následně objeven až v roce 2012. Je zapsán jako Kriticky Ohrožený v Červeném seznamu IUCN a byl dokonce považován za vyhynulý. Velemyš dinagatská byla znovuobjevena v lednu 2012 a tak byla prokázána její přítomnost na ostrově Dinagat. Toto znovuobjevení podtrhuje lokální, národní i mezinárodní význam ostrova Dinagat (či skupiny ostrovů Dinagat-Siargao) jako centra druhového endemismu v rámci regionu Greater Mindanao Faunal Region. Bohužel na celém ostrově existuje jen jedno lokálně chráněné území a žádný z posledních zbývajících lesních habitatů na Dinagatu není v současnosti chráněn na celonárodní úrovni. Těžba nerostných surovin a ničení prostředí představují pro tento druh výraznou hrozbu. Věříme, že znovuobjevení velemyši dinagatské může poskytnout důležitý a včasný impulz k nutnosti vytvoření racionálního, vědecky podloženého celoostrovního programu rozvoje na Dinagatu, který bude zahrnovat také ostrovní/regionální strategii ochrany biodiverzity, což by pomohlo zajistit efektivní a dlouhodobou ochranu většiny z několika málo zbývajících přírodních habitatů v této oblasti.

Friday, July 10, 2015

[Herpetology • 2015] Cnemaspis mahsuriae • A New Insular Species of Rock Gecko (Cnemaspis Boulenger) from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia


Mashuri’s Rock Gecko | Cnemaspis mahsuriae
Grismer, Wood, Quah, Anuar, Ngadi & Ahmad, 2015

Abstract

A new, diminutive species of Rock Gecko Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov. of the affinis group, is described from Gunung Raya on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia and is differentiated from all other species in the affinis group by having a unique combination of characters including a maximum SVL of 36.6 mm; keeled subtibials and ventrals; 21–24 paravertebral tubercles; no tubercles in the lateral caudal furrows; caudal tubercles not encircling tail; no precloacal pores; 23–26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; no white ocelli in the shoulder region; no yellow postscapular band; and faint yellow bars on the flanks. Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov. is a forest-dwelling species living in close sympatry or paraptry with the insular endemic C. roticanai Grismer & Chan. The Langkawi Archipelago harbors a unique mix of Malaysian and Indochinese taxa and the frequency of new discoveries from this group of islands is increasing.

Keywords: Cnemaspis, Mashuri, Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia, new species, systematics


FIGURE 3. Upper left: Adult male Cnemaspis harimau (LSUDPC 6381) from Gunung Jerai, Kedah. Lower left: Adult male C. affinis (LSUDPC 9078) from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Penang.
Upper right: Adult male holotype of Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov. (LSUHC 11828) from Gunung Raya, Pulau Langkawi, Kedah. Lower right: Adult female paratype of C. mahsuriae sp. nov. (LSUHC 11829) from Gunung Raya, Pulau Langkawi, Kedah.
Grismer, Wood, et al. 2015

FIGURE 1. Distribution and relationships of Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov., C. harimau, and C. affinis along the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Branch lengths do not represent genetic distance.
Grismer, Wood, et al. 2015

Grismer, L. L.,Wood, P. L., Jr., Quah, E. S. H., Anuar, S., Ngadi, E. and Ahmad, N. 2015. A New Insular Species of Rock Gecko (Cnemaspis Boulenger) from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa. 3985(2): 203–218.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3985.2.2