Friday, July 25, 2014

[Paleontology • 2014] Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus • A Jurassic ornithischian Dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales


Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus Godefroit, Sinitsa, Dhouailly, Bolotsky, Sizov, McNamara, Benton & Spagna, 2014
wanders the lake-dotted lowlands of Jurassic Siberia
illustration: Andrey Atuchin


ABSTRACT
Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs.


Pascal Godefroit, Sofia M. Sinitsa, Danielle Dhouailly, Yuri L. Bolotsky, Alexander V. Sizov, Maria E. McNamara, Michael J. Benton and Paul Spagna. 2014. A Jurassic ornithischian Dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales. Science. 345(6195): 451-455. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1253351 

Feathers More Common Among Dinosaurs Than Previously Thought

[Mammalogy • 2014] Murine Rodents (Rodentia: Murinae) of the Myanmar-Thai-Malaysian peninsula and Singapore: Taxonomy, Distribution, Ecology, Conservation Status, and Illustrated Identification Keys


Fig. 51. Seven common murine genera in peninsular Myanmar-Thai-Malaysia.  (A): Maxomys (M. surifer); (B): Niviventer (N. cremoriventer); (C): Rattus (R. tanezumi); (D): Leopoldamys (L. sabanus); (E): Berylmys (B. bowersi); (F): Bandicota (B. indica); (G): Sundamys (S. muelleri).
Not to scale. | Pimsai, et al. 2014 [Fulltext

Abstract
Based on field surveys undertaken between 2010 and 2013, museum studies in Thailand and the UK, and an extensive literature review, this paper provides information on the 28 species and 12 genera of murine rodents currently known from peninsular Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia and Singapore. It incorporates a detailed summary of past research, 1851–2013, of the Murinae in the study area and includes descriptive characters of the external, cranial and dental morphology and measurements for each of the rodent species. It lists and maps the 93 murine taxa described from the peninsula, 84 of which are currently considered to be synonyms at species level. Each of the 389 different localities on the 28 distribution maps is numbered and linked to its source, either literature or museum specimen, and listed in the online gazetteer. The global conservation status of each species is obtained from the IUCN Red List. Remarks are made, where data are available, on the ecology, karyology, fossil history, sperm morphology, phylogeny, and taxonomic history and ambiguities. Recommendations are made for further research. A series of illustrated matrix keys is provided to assist with the identification of all the murine genera and species within the study area.

Key words: Taxonomy, distribution, identification keys, karyology, ecology, conservation status.

Fig. 1. Study area: peninsular Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia, and Singapore. 

Uraiporn Pimsai, Malcolm J. Pearch, Chutamas Satasook, Sara Bumrungsri & Paul J.J. Bates. 2014. Murine Rodents (Rodentia: Murinae) of the Myanmar-Thai-Malaysian peninsula and Singapore: Taxonomy, Distribution, Ecology, Conservation Status, and Illustrated Identification Keys. Bonn zoological Bulletin. 63 (1): 15–114


Thursday, July 24, 2014

[Botany • 2014] A Key to the Genus Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand with Descriptions of 10 New Taxa | พรรณพฤกษชาติ สกุลขิง ในประเทศไทย


FIGURE 11. A. Zingiber brachystachys Triboun & K. Larsen; B. Z. callianthus Triboun & K. Larsen; C. Z. chantaranothaii Triboun & K. Larsen; D.-E. Z. cornubracteatum Triboun & K. Larsen; F. Z. isanense Triboun & K. Larsen; G. Z. parishii Hook.f. subsp. phuphanense Triboun & K. Larsen, H.-I. Z. pyroglossum Triboun & K. Larsen; J. Z. sadakornii Triboun & K. Larsen; K. Z. tenuiscapus Triboun & K. Larsen; L. Z. vittacheilum Triboun & K. Larsen.

ABSTRACT
        A key to the genus Zingiber in Thailand is presented and 10 new taxa are described and illustrated: Z. brachystachys Triboun & K. Larsen, Z. callianthus Triboun & K. Larsen, Z.chantaranothaii Triboun & K. Larsen, Z. cornubracteatum Triboun & K. Larsen, Z. isanense Triboun & K. Larsen, Z. parashii Hook.f. subsp. phuphanense Triboun & K. Larsen, Z. pyroglossum Triboun & K. Larsen, Z. sadakornii Triboun & K. Larsen, Z. tenuiscapus Triboun & K. Larsen and Z. vittacheilum Triboun & K. Larsen.

KEYWORDS: new taxa, Zingiber, Zingiberaceae, Thailand


 PRAMOTE TRIBOUN, KAI LARSEN and PRANOM CHANTARANOTHAI. 2014. A Key to the Genus Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand with Descriptions of 10 New Taxa. Thai Journal of Botany. 6(1): 53-77. 

[Entomology • 2014] Helictophanes flava & Cyphophanes khitchakutensis • Two New Species of Enarmoniini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from eastern Thailand


FIGURE 1. Adults of Helictophanes and Cyphophanes.
A. Helictophanes flava, n. sp. (holotype male). B. H. flava, n. sp. (paratype female).
C. Cyphophanes khitchakutensis, n. sp. (holotype male). D. C. khitchakutensis, n. sp. (paratype female)
(scale bar=2 mm).

Abstract
Two new species of the tribe Enarmoniini (Tortricidae) are described from the Chanthaburi and Trat provinces of eastern Thailand: Helictophanes flava Muadsub and Pinkaew, n. sp., and Cyphophanes khitchakutensis Muadsub and Pinkaew, n. sp. Illustrations of adults and genitalia are provided.
Key words: Cyphophanes, Helictophanes, Enarmoniini, Khao Khitchakut National Park, Olethreutinae, Trat Agroforestry Research and Training Station

Muadsub, Sawitree & Nantasak Pinkaew. 2014. Two New Species of Enarmoniini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from eastern Thailand. Zootaxa. 3841(1): 127–134.

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

[Herpetology • 2012] Report on the Life Colouration of the enigmatic Burrowing Skink Voeltzkowia rubrocaudata (Grandidier, 1869) from southwestern Madagascar


Fig. 1. Habitat of Voeltzkowia rubrocaudata: corn plantation (in foreground) near the village of Andranomaitso, Commune rurale de Sakaraha.  
Fig. 2. Voeltzkowia rubrocaudata individual (MRSN R3726) in life from Andranomaitso village, southwestern Madagascar, found on the 11 December 2009:
A. dorso-lateral overview; B. dorsal view; C. head close up; D. individual burrowing in the substrate.
Photos by Gonçalo M. Rosa.

Abstract
 Voeltzkowia is a monophyletic genus of burrowing skinks endemic to Madagascar. The fossorial habits of these species make them hard to see and study, and witness their life history traits. During two herpetological surveys in southwestern Madagascar (in 2009 and 2011) we found several Voeltzkowia rubrocaudata individuals in a corn plantation, a habitat that differs from the forested habitat reported in the literature. Life colouration for this shy scincid is described for the first time.
Key words. Southwestern Madagascar, corn plantation, Squamata, Scincidae.

Fig. 2. Voeltzkowia rubrocaudata individual (MRSN R3726) in life from Andranomaitso village, southwestern Madagascar, found on the 11 December 2009:
A. dorso-lateral overview; B. dorsal view; C. head close up; D. individual burrowing in the substrate.
 Photos by Gonçalo M. Rosa.

Gonçalo M. Rosa, Paolo Eusebio Bergò, Angelica Crottini & Franco Andreone. 2012. Report on the Life Colouration of the enigmatic Burrowing Skink Voeltzkowia rubrocaudata (Grandidier, 1869) from southwestern Madagascar. Bonn zoological Bulletin. 61 (1): 31–34

[Herpetology • 2009] Thamnosophis mavotenda • Phylogenetic Relationships of A New Species of pseudoxyrhophiine Snake (Reptilia: Lamprophiidae) Suggest A Biogeographical Link Between western and northern Madagascar


Thamnosophis mavotenda
Glaw, Nagy, Köhler, Franzen & Vences, 2009

Abstract
We describe a new species of the pseudoxyrhophiine snake genus Thamnosophis from a dry forest of the karstic massif Tsingy de Bemaraha in central western Madagascar. Thamnosophis mavotenda sp. n. is characterised by 19 dorsal scale rows, 188 ventrals, 110 subcaudals, and by colouration (e.g. yellow head sides). Morphological and molecular phylogenetic data indicate that the species is most closely related to the recently described Thamnosophis martae from the far north of the island which inhabits dry karstic forest and subhumid lowland rainforest. This species pair represents a well-supported example of a sister-group relationship in snakes between northern Madagascar and the Tsingy de Bemaraha plateau, and corroborates preliminary observations in other reptile species. We discuss this finding in the light of recent hypotheses on the biogeographic zonation of Madagascar.

Keywords: Serpentes; Pseudoxyrhophiinae; Thamnosophis; New species; Madagascar; Biogeography


Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the Malagasy words “mavo” (yellow) and “tenda” (throat) and refers to the yellow throat of the holotype. It is to be treated as a noun in apposition for the purposes of nomenclature.

Distribution and Conservation: Thamnosophis mavotenda is only known from a single individual captured in the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park. Thus, any statements on the species’ distribution and conservation status must remain tentative. Several Malagasy reptile and amphibian species are known only from this nature reserve (e.g. Schimmenti and Jesu 1996; Puente et al. 2005; Glaw et al. 2007a; Köhler et al. 2007), suggesting its importance as a center of endemism. It is therefore possible that T. mavotenda is endemic to the Tsingy de Bemaraha as well. We did not notice any obvious threat to the species, and its occurrence in a relatively large, protected area seems to indicate that it is not severely threatened, although it is remarkable that intensive surveys in this park (Bora et al. in press) did not reveal further specimens. Using the same rationale and IUCN criteria as applied during the Global Amphibian Assessment for Malagasy amphibians (Andreone et al. 2005), we classify T. mavotenda as “Data Deficient”. [>> Near Threatened (IUCNRedlist.org)]


 F. Glaw, Z.T. Nagy, J. Koehler, M. Franzen and M. Vences. 2009. Phylogenetic Relationships of A New Species of pseudoxyrhophiine Snake (Reptilia: Lamprophiidae: Thamnosophis) Suggest A Biogeographical Link Between western and northern Madagascar. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 9:13-22.

Monday, July 21, 2014

[PaleoMammalogy • 2014] “Eodelphiskabatensis • A New Name for the Oldest True Dolphin Stenella kabatensis Horikawa, 1977 (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Delphinidae), from the upper Miocene of Japan, and the Phylogeny and Paleobiogeography of Delphinoidea


Eodelphis” kabatensis (Horikawa, 1977)
Illustration: R. Boessenecker | CoastalPaleo.blogspot.com

ABSTRACT
The oldest reported fossil record of Delphinidae is from the late Miocene (11 Ma) of California. Reliable Miocene fossil delphinids, however, are few. “Eodelphis kabatensis from the upper Miocene Mashike Formation (8.5-13.0 Ma), Hokkaido, northern Japan, is the oldest described Miocene delphinid including a skull. Therefore, this species is a significant clue to understanding the early evolutionary history of Delphinidae. The original taxonomic assignment of this species within the genus Stenella is questionable; thus, we propose a new combination for the species, Eodelphis kabatensis Horikawa, 1977. Eodelphis is a basal delphinid, and comprehensive morphological cladistic analysis, including molecular topological constraints, supported this taxonomic revision. Paleobiogeographic analyses based on the present morphological cladistic analysis and analysis under the molecular constraints suggest that the origin and early diversification of Delphinidae occurred in the middle Miocene Pacific Ocean or elsewhere, respectively.



SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY

CETACEA Brisson, 1762
ODONTOCETI Flower, 1867
DELPHINOIDEA Gray, 1821 DELPHINIDAE Gray, 1821

EODELPHIS, new genus

Type and Only Known Species: “Eodelphis kabatensis (new combination).

Diagnosis: As for the type species.
Etymology: From the Ancient Greek ‘Eo,’ for dawn referring to the earliest delphinid; and from Latin ‘delphis,’ for dolphin.

EODELPHIS KABATENSIS (Horikawa, 1977), new combination

Delphinidae, gen.
et sp. indet. Horikawa and Fujita, 1972:177, pl. 1.
Stenella kabatensis: Horikawa, 1977:98, figs. 2–8, pls. 1, 2.
Delphinidae, gen. indet. Ichishima, 2005:11.



CONCLUSIONS
We redescribed the late Miocene delphinid, Stenella kabatensis (8.5–13.0 Ma), from Hokkaido, northern Japan, as a new genus “Eodelphis”. Both a comprehensive morphological cladistic analysis and this analysis under the constraint tree of molecular phylogenetic analyses support a new combination of the species; i.e., Eodelphis is significantly more archaic than the Stenella complex. Those analyses also indicate that the two extinct species Stenella rayi and Tursiops osennae are not included in the Stenella complex. “Eodelphis is significant for understanding the origin, early evolution, and paleobiogeography of Delphinidae, as well as calibration of the molecular divergence estimates: “Eodelphis” kabatensis is the oldest and only valid Miocene delphinid species yet described. However, paleobiogeographic analyses based on the present phylogenetic analyses suggest different biogeographic scenarios: origin and early diversification in the middle Miocene Pacific Ocean or outside the Pacific Ocean. To resolve the origin of Delphinidae, we need to include more fossil delphinids and kentriodontids in phylogenetic analyses.



 Mizuki Murakami, Chieko Shimada and Yoshinori Hikida. 2014. “Eodelphis kabatensis, a new name for the oldest true dolphin Stenella kabatensis Horikawa, 1977 (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Delphinidae), from the upper Miocene of Japan, and the phylogeny and paleobiogeography of Delphinoidea. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34(3); 


Unfortunately as it turns out - Eodelphis  is a preoccupied name for Cretaceous marsupial. So, it will require an additional paper proposing yet another replacement name.

Dolphins swam the oceans six MILLION years earlier than thought
http://dailym.ai/1iigj5j via @MailOnline

Sunday, July 20, 2014

[Herpetology • 2014] Cyrtodactylus vilaphongi • A New Species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Karst Forest of Luang Prabang Province, northern Laos


Cyrtodactylus vilaphongi
Schneider, Nguyen, Le, Nophaseud, Bonkowski & Ziegler, 2014

Abstract
We describe a new species of the gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of two specimens collected from limestone forests of Luang Prabang Province, northern Laos. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners by a combination of the following diagnostic characters: maximum SVL 86.1 mm; supralabials 9 or 10; infralabials 7–9; dorsal tubercles in 15 or 16 rows at midbody; ventral scale rows 34–36 at midbody; precloacal groove absent; femoral scales not distinctly enlarged; precloacal pores absent in females (unknown in males); subdigital lamellae under the fourth finger 18 or 19, under the fourth toe 18–20; subcaudals not transversally enlarged; dorsal bands white, 4 or 5 between limb insertions plus another one between hind limbs; tail banded. Based on molecular analyses, the new species is clustered in the same clade with C. wayakonei and two other species from Luang Prabang and Houaphan provinces.

Keywords: Bent-toed gecko, limestone forest, phylogeny, taxonomy, Luang Prabang Province


Schneider, Nicole, Truong Q. Nguyen, Minh D. Le, Liphone Nophaseud, Michael Bonkowski & Thomas Ziegler. 2014. A New Species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Karst Forest of northern Laos. Zootaxa. 3835(1): 80–96.

[Herpetology • 2014] Cyrtodactylus puhuensis • DNA Barcoding of Vietnamese Bent-toed Geckos (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and the Description of A New Species from northwestern Thanh Hóa Province, northern Vietnam


 Pù Hu Bent-toed Gecko | Cyrtodactylus puhuensis
Nguyen, Yang, Thi Le, Nguyen, Orlov, Hoang, Nguyen,
Jin, Rao, Hoang, Che, Murphy & Zhang, 2014

Abstract
Species of bent-toed gecko (Cyrtodactylus) in Vietnam have been described at a rate of nearly four species per year since 2007 mostly based on morphological data. A tool that guides species delimitation will accelerate the rate of documentation, and at a time when the recognition of species greatly benefits conservation. We use DNA barcoding using COI (550 bp) to re-examine the levels of genetic divergence and taxonomic status of 21 described species of Vietnamese bent-toed geckos. Tree-based analyses resolve all sampled species and identify potential undescribed taxa. Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances between the described species average 21.0±4.2% and range from 4.3% to 28.7%. Further, our analyses discover two potentially new species from Vietnam, two from Laos and one from China. Herein we describe the new species Cyrtodactylus puhuensis sp. nov. from Vietnam on the basis of both genetics and morphology. Genetically, it differs from the remaining species by an average K2P distance of 24.0±1.8%. Morphologically, the new species is diagnosed by its medium-size (snout-vent length 79.24 mm and tail length 82.59 mm, for the single known individual), in having a series of moderately enlarged transverse subcaudals and a series of moderately enlarged femoral scales that extend from precloacal scales, in possessing femoral scales without pores, with males having five precloacal pores, and in exhibiting 8 supralabials, 10 infralabials, 23 narrow subdigital lamellae on its fourth toe, and 36 transverse ventrals. 

Key words: Cyrtodactylus puhuensis, Indochina, Thanh Hoa, genealogy


Nguyen, Sang N., Jun-xiao Yang, Thanh-ngan T. Le, Luan T. Nguyen, Nikolai L. Orlov, Chung V. Hoang, Truong Q. Nguyen, Jie-qiong Jin, Ding-Qi Rao, Thao N. Hoang, Jing Che, Robert W. Murphy & Ya-Ping Zhang. 2014. DNA Barcoding of Vietnamese Bent-toed Geckos (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) and the Description of A New Species. Zootaxa. 3784(1): 48–66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3784.1.2

Saturday, July 19, 2014

[Paleontology • 2014] Lyrarapax unguispinus • Brain Structure resolves the Segmental Affinity of anomalocaridid Appendages


Lyrarapax unguispinus
Cong, Ma, Hou, Edgecombe & Strausfeld. 2014
a, b, Dorsal view of Lyrarapax unguispinus YKLP13305 (left side slightly tilted downwards) resolving straight midgut (mg) and sinusoidal alimentary tract (alt). Four neck and eleven trunk segments, the first providing paired oar-like flaps (fl between arrowheads), the last providing the tail fan (tf). Dark areas in the head indicate paired frontal appendage ganglia (frg), optic tract (opt) linking retinas (re) in eyes (ey) to flattened lateral protocerebral lobes (lpr in h) flanking an approximately bilaterally symmetric protocerebrum (pr). Metameric striate areas indicate muscle (m). c–e, Raised and indented grooves of muscle blocks (enlargements of boxed areas in b). f–h, Neural traces: blue digital filter (f) cancels colours in fossil except dark neural regions (for example, medial protocerebrum, mpr) that are resolved by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (g), as carbon-rich domains, and shown by oblique illumination relative to eye and head margins (h); bm, basement membrane and first optic neuropil. Raised neck segments gradually obscure caudally directed descending tracts (dt). Scale bars: a, b, 1 cm; c–e, 0.5 mm; f (also for g) and h, 5 mm.

Despite being among the most celebrated taxa from Cambrian biotas, anomalocaridids (order Radiodonta) have provoked intense debate about their affinities within the moulting-animal clade that includes Arthropoda. Current alternatives identify anomalocaridids as either stem-group euarthropods, crown-group euarthropods near the ancestry of chelicerates, or a segmented ecdysozoan lineage with convergent similarity to arthropods in appendage construction. Determining unambiguous affinities has been impeded by uncertainties about the segmental affiliation of anomalocaridid frontal appendages. These structures are variably homologized with jointed appendages of the second (deutocerebral) head segment, including antennae and ‘great appendages’ of Cambrian arthropods, or with the paired antenniform frontal appendages of living Onychophora and some Cambrian lobopodians. Here we describe Lyrarapax unguispinus, a new anomalocaridid from the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota, southwest China, nearly complete specimens of which preserve traces of muscles, digestive tract and brain. The traces of brain provide the first direct evidence for the segmental composition of the anomalocaridid head and its appendicular organization. Carbon-rich areas in the head resolve paired pre-protocerebral ganglia at the origin of paired frontal appendages. The ganglia connect to areas indicative of a bilateral pre-oral brain that receives projections from the eyestalk neuropils and compound retina. The dorsal, segmented brain of L. unguispinus reinforces an alliance between anomalocaridids and arthropods rather than cycloneuralians. Correspondences in brain organization between anomalocaridids and Onychophora resolve pre-protocerebral ganglia, associated with pre-ocular frontal appendages, as characters of the last common ancestor of euarthropods and onychophorans. A position of Radiodonta on the euarthropod stem-lineage implies the transformation of frontal appendages to another structure in crown-group euarthropods, with gene expression and neuroanatomy providing strong evidence that the paired, pre-oral labrum is the remnant of paired frontal appendages.

A spectacularly preserved creature, dubbed Lyrarapax unguispinus, was unearthed in China. The 520-million-year-old sea creature was so well-preserved that parts of its brain and nervous system were clearly defined.
photo: Peiyun Cong

Arthropoda von Siebold, 1848
Radiodonta Collins, 1996

Amplectobeluidae Vinther et al., 2014

Lyrarapax unguispinus gen. et sp. nov.


Etymology. lyra (Latin): referring to an overall lyre-like body shape; rapax (Latin): predator; unguis (Latin): claw; spinus (Latin): thorn, alluding to the spinose, claw-like frontal appendages.

Holotype. Holotype YKLP 13304a, b (Fig. 1 and Extended Data Figs 1a and 2a–d), part and counterpart.
Referred material. Paratypes YKLP 13305 (part only, Figs 2 and 3b, c), YKLP 13306 (part and counterpart, Extended Data Fig. 3).

Locality. Ercaicun (YKLP 13304, 13306) and Mafang (YKLP 13305) in Haikou, Yunnan Province, China.

Horizon. Heilinpu Formation, Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3, Yu’anshan Member (Eoredlichia–Wutingaspis assemblage zone).




Peiyun Cong, Xiaoya Ma, Xianguang Hou, Gregory D. Edgecombe & Nicholas J. Strausfeld. 2014. Brain Structure resolves the Segmental Affinity of anomalocaridid Appendages. Nature. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13486

[PaleoMammalogy • 2014] Notiolofos cf. arquinotiensis • The Oldest Mammals from Antarctica, early Eocene of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island


Figure 1. Geographical and stratigraphical provenance of the remains described here.
Figure 2. View of the north-west side of the Seymour Island. The arrow indicates the position of locality IAA 1/13.

Abstract
New fossil mammals found at the base of Acantilados II Allomember of the La Meseta Formation, from the early Eocene (Ypresian) of Seymour Island, represent the oldest evidence of this group in Antarctica. Two specimens are here described; the first belongs to a talonid portion of a lower right molar assigned to the sparnotheriodontid litoptern Notiolofos sp. cf. N. arquinotiensis. Sparnotheriodontid were medium- to large-sized ungulates, with a wide distribution in the Eocene of South America and Antarctica. The second specimen is an intermediate phalanx referred to an indeterminate Eutheria, probably a South American native ungulate. These Antarctic findings in sediments of 55.3 Ma query the minimum age needed for terrestrial mammals to spread from South America to Antarctica, which should have occurred before the final break-up of Gondwana. This event involves the disappearance of the land bridge formed by the Weddellian Isthmus, which connected West Antarctica and southern South America from the Late Cretaceous until sometime in the earliest Palaeogene.
Keywords: West Antarctica; Palaeogene; Ypresian; tooth and bone morphology; ungulates; Sparnotheriodontidae


Class MAMMALIA Linnaeus, 1758
Order LITOPTERNA Ameghino, 1889
Family SPARNOTHERIODONTIDAE Soria, 1980

Genus NOTIOLOFOS Bond, Reguero, Vizcaíno, Marenssi and Ortiz Jaureguizar, 2009
Type species: Notiolofos arquinotiensis (Bond, Reguero, Vizcaíno and Marenssi, 2006).

Notiolofos cf. N. arquinotiensis (Bond, Reguero, Vizcaíno and Marenssi, 2006)  



 Javier N. Gelfo, Thomas Mörs, Malena Lorente, Guillermo M. López, Marcelo Reguero. in press. The Oldest Mammals from Antarctica, early Eocene of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island. Palaeontology. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1111/pala.12121.

Bond, M., Reguero, M. A., Vizcaíno, S. F. and Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E. 2009. Notiolofos, a replacement name for Notolophus Bond, Reguero, Vizcaíno and Marenssi, 2006, a preoccupied name. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29, 979.

M. Bond, M. A. Reguero, S. F. Vizcaíno and S. A. Marenssi. 2006. A New ‘South American ungulate’ (Mammalia: Litopterna) from the Eocene of the Antarctic Peninsula. In J. E. Francis, D. Pirrie, J. A. Crame (eds). Cretaceous-tertiary high-latitude palaeoenvironments: James Ross Basin, Antarctica. The Geological Society of London. 258(1): 163–176. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.258.01.12.

[PaleoMammalogy • 2006] Notiolofos (Notolophus) arquinotiensis • A New ‘South American ungulate’ (Mammalia: Litopterna) from the Eocene of the Antarctic Peninsula




Abstract

Notolophus arquinotiensis, a new genus and species of the family Sparnotheriodontidae (Mammalia, Litopterna), is represented by several isolated teeth from the shallow-marine sediments of the La Meseta Formation (late Early-Late Eocene) of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which have also yielded the youngest known sudamericids and marsupials. The new taxon belongs to the extinct order of ‘South American native ungulate’ Litopterna characterized by the convergence of the later forms with the equids and camelids. Notolophus arquinotiensis shows closest relationships with Victorlemoinea from the Itaboraian (middle Palaeocene) of Brazil and Riochican-Vacan (late Palaeocene-early Eocene) of Patagonia, Argentina. Although still poorly documented, this new taxon shows that the early Palaeogene Antarctic faunas might provide key data concerning the problems of the origin, diversity and basal phylogeny of some of the ‘South American ungulates’ (Litopterna). This new taxon shows the importance of Antarctica in the early evolution of the ungulates and illustrates our poor state of knowledge.


M. Bond, M. A. Reguero, S. F. Vizcaíno and S. A. Marenssi. 2006. A New ‘South American ungulate’ (Mammalia: Litopterna) from the Eocene of the Antarctic Peninsula. In J. E. Francis, D. Pirrie, J. A. Crame (eds). Cretaceous-tertiary high-latitude palaeoenvironments: James Ross Basin, Antarctica. The Geological Society of London. 258(1): 163–176. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.258.01.12.

Bond, M., Reguero, M. A., Vizcaíno, S. F. and Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E. 2009. Notiolofos, a replacement name for Notolophus Bond, Reguero, Vizcaíno and Marenssi, 2006, a preoccupied name. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29, 979.

 Javier N. Gelfo, Thomas Mörs, Malena Lorente, Guillermo M. López, Marcelo Reguero.  in press. The oldest mammals from Antarctica, early Eocene of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island. Palaeontology. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1111/pala.12121.