Tuesday, September 30, 2014

[Entomology • 2014] Sirindhornia Pinkaew and Muadsub • A New Enarmoniine Genus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Thailand

FIGURE 1. Head of Sirindhornia spp.
 A–B. S. pulchella, n. sp. (holotype male). C–D. S. chaipattana, n. sp. (holotype male). E–F. S. curvicosta, n. sp. (holotype male). G–H. S. bifida, n. sp. (holotype male). I–J. Sirindhornia sp. (female).


A new enarmoniine genus, Sirindhornia, n. gen., is described based on the type species, Sirindhornia pulchella, n. sp., and three additional new species: Sirindhornia chaipattana, n. sp., Sirindhornia curvicosta, n. sp., and Sirindhornia bifida, n. sp., all from Thailand. A fifth species represented only by a single female is morphologically characterized but not formally described. Sirindhornia is most closely related to Anthozela Meyrick and Irianassa Meyrick but is easily distinguished by unique appendages of the tegumen and a conspicuous henion in the male genitalia.

Keywords: Ang-Ed Community forest, Enarmoniini, Khao Nan National Park, new genus, new species, Olethreutinae, Trat Agroforestry Research and Training Station

Muadsub, Sopita & Nantasak Pinkaew. 2014. Sirindhornia Pinkaew and Muadsub (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), A New Enarmoniine Genus from Thailand. Zootaxa. 3869(1): 53–63.

[Herpetology • 2014] Cyrtodactylus saiyok | ตุ๊กกายไทรโยค | Saiyok Bent-toed Gecko • A New Dry Evergreen Forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand

Cyrtodactylus saiyok 
Panitvong, Sumontha, Tunprasert & Pauwels, 2014
DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3869.1.6

We describe Cyrtodactylus saiyok sp. nov. from a dry evergreen forest on a limestone hill in Khao Krajae, Sai Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. It is characterized by a maximal known SVL of 61.0 mm; 18–19 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; 23 or 24 ventral scale rows between ventrolateral skin folds; a continuous series of enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including 5 pore-bearing precloacal scales (males); no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; a complete black nuchal loop; a W-shaped band above shoulders and 3–5 irregular, medially interrupted or not, black dorsal bands between limb insertions. Cyrtodactylus saiyok sp. nov. is the sixth reptile species that is possibly endemic to Sai Yok District.

Keywords: Cyrtodactylus saiyok sp. nov., new species, taxonomy, limestone

Etymology. The specific epithet saiyok refers to the name of the district in which the type locality is situated. It is a noun in apposition, invariable. We suggest the following common names: Took-kai Sai Yok (Thai), Sai Yok bent-toed gecko (English), Cyrtodactyle de Saï Yok (French), Saiyok Bogenfingergecko (German), Saiyokkromvingergekko (Dutch). The common name Sai Yok Bent-toed Gecko had been proposed by Ellis and Pauwels (2012) for Cyrtodactylus tigroides, for which we here propose the new common name Tiger Bent-toed Gecko.

Panitvong, Nonn, Montri Sumontha, Jitthep Tunprasert & Olivier S. g. Pauwels. 2014. Cyrtodactylus saiyok sp. nov., A New Dry Evergreen Forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand.
Zootaxa. 3869(1): 64–74. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3869.1.6

[Herpetology • 2014] Reclassification of Oligodon ningshaanensis Yuan, 1983 (Ophidia: Colubridae) into a New Genus, Stichophanes gen. nov. with Description on Its Malacophagous Behavior

Stichophanes gen. nov. ningshaanensis [syn. Oligodon ningshaanensis]
 An extremely rare colubrid from Hubei Province, China. A single specimen was discovered in 1983 and none have been seen since, until I uncovered approximately 25 specimens in 2006 and 2008 at the site where this individual was photographed. Unlike other members in the genus [Oligodon], this species does not prey on eggs, but preys exclusively on snails and slugs.
 text & photo: K. Messenger [July 2011] flic.kr/p/ajY5UU


The complete mitochondrial cytb gene and the partial nuclear c-mos gene of Oligodon ningshaanensis Yuan, 1983 were sequenced and used for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationship of this taxon amongst alethinophidian snakes. Its strong affinity to the New World subfamily Dipsadinae and the Old World species Thermophis baileyi was inferred. Hemipenial morphology found by authors conflicts with the original description and its similarity with those of the dipsadid snakes is in accordance with our molecular results. Feeding tests show that O. ningshaanensis is a malacophagous predator, which is another matchless character for this species. This behavior is described and compared with other known slug- and snail-feeding snakes. The discovery of the particular position of our subject indicates that erecting a new genus is necessary accommodate this unique species.

Keywords: Stichophanes gen. nov. ningshaanensis, Dipsadinae, molecular phylogeny, hemipenial morphology, mollusks-predator

Xiaohe WANG, Kevin MESSENGER, Ermi ZHAO and Chaodong ZHU. 2014. Reclassification of Oligodon ningshaanensis Yuan, 1983 (Ophidia: Colubridae) into a New Genus, Stichophanes gen. nov. with Description on Its Malacophagous Behavior. 
Asian Herpetological Research. 
5(3): 137–149. 

Monday, September 29, 2014

[Herpetology • 2014] New Ooccurrence of Sinovipera sichuanensis in Guizhou, southwestern China

Figure 1: General view of adult male Sinovipera sichuanensis from Jiangkou, Guizhou

 Three Asian green pit vipers were collected in August 2013 during a field trip in Fanjin Mt. National Conservation Area, Guizhou. These specimens were identified as Sinovipera sichuanensis, based on subsequent examination and comparison. This is a new record of the genus Sinovipera and S. sichuanensis in Guizhou, and the first time that male specimens have been 
collected in the field. 

Keywords: Snake; Hemipenis; Distribution; Morphology 

Qin LIU, Guang-Hui ZHONG, Shi-Ze LI, Jing-Cai LÜ and Peng GUO. 2014. New Ooccurrence of Sinovipera sichuanensis in Guizhou. Zoological Research. 35 (4): 350−352 

[Ichthyology • 2014] Schistura megalodon • A New River Loach (Cypriniformes: Nem­a­c­heilidae) from the Irrawaddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China

 A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a broad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions. 

Keywords: Schistura megalodon; Irrawaddy; Dehong; Yunnan

Marco Endruweit. 2014. Schistura megalodon species nova, A New River Loach from the Irrawaddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nem­a­c­heilidae). [J]. ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 35(5) http://www.zoores.ac.cn/EN/Y0/V/I/30

Sunday, September 28, 2014

[Herpetology • 2014] A Checklist and Key to the Homalopsid Snakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), with the Description of New Genera

TABLE 2. Homalopsid species are grouped based on morphological and molecular work.
 The Fangless Indonesian Group was recently recognized and placed within the Homalopsidae by Murphy et al. (2011). (Photo A Brachyorrhos raffrayi by J.C.M.) Alfaro et al. (2008) recognized four clades. Their clade A corresponds with our Plumbea Group, containing a highly aquatic undescribed species from Lake Towuti, Sulawesi. (Photo B Hypsiscopus plumbea by Daryl R. Karns.) The South China Group is linked by similar morphology, and was long considered to be part of Enhydris. Kumar et al. (2012) found Myrrophis chinensis to be the sister to the southwest Indian Dieurostus dussumierii (also previously considered part of Enhydris). (Photo C Myrrophis chinensis by Steve Mackessy.) The two species in the Fossorial-Aquatic Group share similar morphology and geography but remain unconfirmed by molecular studies. (Image D Miralia alternans from Jan & Sordelli, 1860–1881.) Similarly, most members of the South Asian Group have not been included in molecular studies. The group shares some morphology and geography. (Photo E Dieurostus dussumierii by Biju Kumar.) The Pahang Mud Snake, Kualatahan pahangensis, is of uncertain relationship. It may be allied with the South Asian Group or the Enhydris Group. The Enhydris Group is centered in Indochina, they use freshwater habitats, and group membership of all but Enhydris chanardi has been supported with molecular and morphological data (Alfaro et al., 2008; Karns et al., 2010a). (Photo F Enhydris enhydris by J.C.M.) The Punctata Group is centered on the Sunda Shelf and shares similar morphology. Only Phytolopsis punctata has been included in molecular studies. (Photo G Homalophis doriae by Daryl R. Karns.) The Saltwater Group has been well documented with molecular data (Alfaro et al., 2008). (Photo H Cantoria violacea by J.C.M.) The Australasian Group is well supported by a close genetic relationship between Pseudoferania and Myron (Alfaro et al., 2008; Kumar et al., 2012; Pyron et al., 2013) and shared morphology and geography with the other members of the group. (Photo I Pseudoferania polylepis by J.C.M.) The Sunda Group is at best tentative, Alfaro et al. (2008) found a sister relationship between Erpeton and Subsessor bocourti, while Murphy et al. (2011) found Erpeton to be the sister to Bitia, and Subsessor to be the sister to the Homalopsis and Cerberus groups; and Kumar et al. recovered Subsessor as the sister to Homalopsis. (Photo J Subsessor bocourti by J.C.M.) The Homalopsis Group is linked by similar morphology. (Photo K Homalopsis mereljcoxi by J.C.M.) The Cerberus Group has three of the five species linked with molecular data (Alfaro et al., 2004) and is strongly supported by Alfaro et al. (2008). (Photo L Cerberus dunsoni by J.C.M.)

The colubroid snake family Homalopsidae contained 10 genera and 34 species of rear-fanged semi-aquatic and aquatic snakes in 1970 with the publication of Gyi's monograph. In 2007 Murphy had updated Gyi's work and the family held the same 10 genera with 37 species plus two genera with uncertain status (Anoplohydrus, Brachyorrhos). Molecular studies published in the first decade of the 21st century demonstrated that while the Homalopsidae is monophyletic, the species-rich genus Enhydris is polyphyletic. Molecular analysis also found Brachyorrhos to be the most basal member of the clade, confirming an earlier hypothesis that it was a fangless homalopsid. Subsequently, two other fangless genera of homalopsids were discovered. We revalidate the genera: Homalophis Peters, Hypsiscopus Fitzinger, Miralia Reuss, Phytolopsis Gray, and Raclitia Gray. Also, we describe five new genera for species lacking available names: Gyiophis, Kualatahan, Mintonophis, Sumatranus, and Subsessor. The new arrangement for homalopsid names resolves the problem of the formerly polyphyletic genus Enhydris. For all species, we provide a synonymy, information on types and type localities, a diagnosis, as well as remarks on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems and a dichotomous key. Recent evidence suggests homalopsids show high levels of endemism and cryptic speciation.

Keywords: aquatic snakes, mud snakes, Homalopsidae, terrestrial–aquatic transition, geographic distribution, taxonomy

CoverEnhydris jagorii Peters from the Bung Ka Lo wetland in Thailand’s Central Plain. This is the only confirmed extant population of this snake. Enhydris jagorii inhabits a marshy wetland with a shallow central lake bordered by rice paddy.
Photo by J.C.M.

John C. Murphy and Harold K. Voris. 2014. A Checklist and Key to the Homalopsid Snakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), with the Description of New Genera. Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences. 8 :1-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3158/2158-5520-14.8.1

Saturday, September 27, 2014

[Paleontology • 2014] Ziapelta sanjuanensis • A New Ankylosaurid Dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Kirtlandian) of New Mexico with Implications for Ankylosaurid Diversity in the Upper Cretaceous of Western North America

Ziapelta sanjuanensis
Arbour,  Burns, Sullivan, Lucas, Cantrell, Fry & Suazo, 2014

A new ankylosaurid (Ankylosauria: Dinosauria), Ziapelta sanjuanensis, gen. et sp. nov., is based on a complete skull, an incomplete first cervical half ring, a possible fragment of the second cervical half ring, and additional fragmentary osteoderms. The holotype specimen is from the Upper Cretaceous (Upper Campanian, Kirtlandian Land-Vertebrate Age) Kirtland Formation (De-na-zin Member) at Hunter Wash, San Juan Basin, in northwestern New Mexico, USA. Diagnostic characters of Ziapelta include: a large, prominent triangular median nasal caputegulum; a mixture of flat and bulbous frontonasal caputegulae; ventrolaterally oriented squamosal horns with a sharp, prominent dorsal keel; and the ventral surface of basicranium with three prominent anteroposteriorly oriented fossae. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that Ziapelta is not closely related to the other ankylosaurid from the De-na-zin Member, Nodocephalosaurus, but allies it to the northern North American ankylosaurids Ankylosaurus, Anodontosaurus, Euoplocephalus, Dyoplosaurus, and Scolosaurus.

Figure 2. Ziapelta sanjuanensis, gen. et sp. nov., (holotype NMMNH P-64484), complete skull.
A, dorsal view; B, ventral view; C, anterior view; D, occipital view; and E, left lateral view.
Abbreviations: asca, anterior supraorbital caputegulum; bas, basioccipital; ch, choana; fm, foramen magnum; j, jugal; laca, lacrimal caputegulum; loca, loreal caputegulum; ltf, laterotemporal fenestra; mnca, median nasal caputegulum; nar, external naris; oc, occipital condyle; orb, orbit; pal, palatine; par, parietal; parocc, paroccipital process; pmx, premaxilla; psca, posterior supraorbital caputegulum; pt, pterygoid; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; qjh, quadratojugal horn; snca, supranarial caputegulum; socc, supraoccipital; sqh, squamosal horn; tr, tooth row; v, vomer. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108804.g002

Speculative life restoration of Ziapelta sanjuanensis
Illustration: Sydney Mohr

Systematic Paleontology

Dinosauria Owen, 1842 
Ornithischia Seeley, 1888  

Thyreophora Nopcsa, 1915  

Ankylosauria Osborn, 1923 
Ankylosauridae Brown, 1908 

Ziapelta gen. nov. 

Type and only known species. Ziapelta sanjuanensis sp. nov. 

Etymology. Zia, after the Zia sun symbol, a stylized sun with four groups of rays, having religious significance to the Zia people of New Mexico, and the iconic symbol on the state flag of New Mexico; pelta (Latin), a small shield, in reference to the osteoderms found on all ankylosaurids; sanjuanensis, In reference to San Juan County and the structural basin from which the specimen was derived.

Figure 4. Cervical half rings of Ziapelta sanjuanensis.
A) Incomplete first and second cervical half rings of NMMNH P-64484 (holotype), with isolated post-cervical osteoderm, as preserved in situ. First cervical half ring is in posterior view. B) Dorsal view of left medial osteoderm showing smaller interstitial osteoderms, anterior is up. C) Isolated first cervical half ring NMMNH P-66930 (referred specimen) in anterior view.
Abbreviations: b, band; g, groove; i, interstitial osteoderm; ld, left distal osteoderm; ll, left lateral osteoderm; lm, left medial osteoderm; mid, midline of the cervical half ring; os, osteoderm; pc os, post-cervical osteoderm; rl, right lateral osteoderm; rm, right medial osteoderm. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108804.g004

Victoria M. Arbour,  Michael E. Burns, Robert M. Sullivan, Spencer G. Lucas, Amanda K. Cantrell, Joshua Fry and Thomas L. Suazo. 2014. A New Ankylosaurid Dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Kirtlandian) of New Mexico with Implications for Ankylosaurid Diversity in the Upper Cretaceous of Western North America. PLoS ONE. 9, 9: e108804. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108804

[Paleontology • 2014] Eousdryosarus nanohallucis • A New dryosaurid Ornithopod (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal

Eousdryosarus nanohallucis
Escaso, Ortega, Dantas, Malafaia, Silva, Gasulla, Mocho, Narváez & Sanz, 2014 
Reconstruction: Raúl Martin

A new dryosaurid ornithopod, Eousdryosaurus nanohallucis, gen. et sp. nov., is described here based on a single specimen from the Late Jurassic Alcobaça Formation of Portugal. Eousdryosaurus nanohallucis is distinguished from all other dryosaurids by eight autapomorphic features and an unique combination of characters, some of which are also shared by other dryosaurids. Eousdryosaurus is linked with Dryosauridae, because the fourth trochanter is proximally placed and widely separated from the scar for the insertion of the M. caudifemoralis longus, which is restricted to the medial surface of the femoral shaft. Phylogenetic analysis nests Eousdryosaurus in an unresolved polytomy at the base of Dryosauridae together with CallovosaurusDryosaurus, and Kangnasaurus. The complete pes of Eousdryosaurus, which has a phalangeal formula of 1-3-4-5-0, supports the putative autapomorphic reduction of the dryosaurid pes that also occurs in parallel in more derived ornithopods.

Fernando Escaso, Francisco Ortega, Pedro Dantas, Elisabete Malafaia, Bruno Silva, José M. Gasulla, Pedro Mocho, Iván Narváez & José L. Sanz. 2014. A New dryosaurid Ornithopod (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34(5): 1102 - 1112. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2014.849715.

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

[Herpetology • 2014] Rhombophryne vaventy • A New microhylid Frog, genus Rhombophryne, from northeastern Madagascar, and a re-description of R. serratopalpebrosa using micro-computed tomography

Rhombophryne vaventy Scherz, Ruthensteiner, Vences & Glaw, 2014

The rainforests of the Marojejy massif in northern Madagascar are a well-known hotspot of amphibian species diversity and endemism. In the present paper, we re-describe Rhombophryne serratopalpebrosa (Guibé 1975), a cophyline microhylid frog from high altitude on this massif, based on a re-examination of its holotype, and describe Rhombophryne vaventy sp. nov. using characters of external morphology and osteology, illustrated by pdf-embedded comparative 3D models of their skeletons. Rhombophryne serratopalpebrosa differs from R. vaventy sp. nov. by smaller size (28 mm snout-vent length vs. 52.9 mm), skin texture (granular vs. rough and tubercular skin respectively), supratympanic fold shape (strong, long and straight reaching the eye vs. curved and not extending anteriorly beyond the tympanum), relative tympanum diameter (78% vs. 41% of eye diameter), shape of the postchoanal prevomerine palate, shape of the footplate of the columella, length of prepollex, and by other subtle osteological features. Morphological comparisons suggest that a specimen from Ambolokopatrika assigned to R. serratopalpebrosa in previous genetic studies might belong to yet another undescribed species, closely related to R. vaventy sp. nov., whereas DNA sequences of the topotypic R. serratopalpebrosa remain unknown. We therefore emphasise the need for collecting additional material from high altitudes of the Marojejy massif to understand the systematics, as well as the natural history, of this poorly known species. For the new species described herein, we propose a Red List threat status of Vulnerable, in line with other Marojejy endemics from a similar altitude.

Keywords: Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae, Rhombophryne vaventy sp. nov., Madagascar, micro-computed tomography

Scherz, Mark D., Bernhard Ruthensteiner, Miguel Vences & Frank Glaw. 2014. A New microhylid Frog, genus Rhombophryne, from northeastern Madagascar, and a re-description of R. serratopalpebrosa using micro-computed tomography. Zootaxa. 3860(6): 547–560.

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

[Herpetology • 2014] On Trimeresurus sumatranus (Raffles, 1822), with the Designation of A Neotype and the Description of A New Species of Pitviper (Viperidae: Crotalinae) from the mountainous areas of western Sumatra; Trimeresurus gunaleni | Ular Hijau Gunung | Sumatran Montane Pitviper

Trimeresurus gunaleni spec. nov.
Fig. 3A. Live adult female Holotype | Fig. 4B. Live male
from Mt. Sibayak, ca. 1,800 m a.s.l., west of Brastagi, Sumatera Utara Province, Sumatra

Variation in morphological characters were investigated among 126 specimens from at least 67 populations covering the whole range of the large pitviper currently known as Trimeresurus sumatranus (Raffles, 1822). The results showed that two distinct taxa are involved. Herein Trimeresurus sumatranus is redefined. In order to fix the status of this species, a neotype is selected and described. Its type locality is restricted to the vicinity of Bengkulu, Bengkulu Province, Sumatra. The second taxon represents a distinct, previously unnamed species, which is described. The new species differs from Trimeresurus sumatranus by a lower number of ventrals in males (162–179 against 178–185) and females (164–171 vs. 175–191); a distinctly longer tail in males (value of the ratio tail length/total length: 0.201–0.210 vs. 0.150–0.168), the color of the tail (see the description), the color of the eyes: green in the new species, vs. dark grey in T. sumatranus, the color of the ventrals, which are green with a pale posterior suture in the new species and pale with dark posterior suture in T. sumatranus. The new species lives in higher elevations than T. sumatranus and seems to be endemic to the higher mountain ranges of western Sumatra.

Key words. Sumatra, West Malaysia, Borneo, Trimeresurus gunaleni spec. nov., Trimeresurus malcolmiTrimeresurus sumatranus 

Fig. 13. MZB.Ophi.5452 holotype of Trimeresurus gunaleni spec. nov., adult female.
Photo: N. Maury.

Trimeresurus gunaleni Vogel, David & Sidik, 2014

 Suggested common names: English: Gunalen’s Pitviper.
Bahasa Indonesia: Ular Hijau Gunung.
Karo: Nipe Ratah. Padang (Minang): Ular Ijo Babiso. French: Trimérésure de Gunalen. German: Gunalen’s Grubenotter.

Etymology: The specific nomen is dedicated to Mr. Danny Gunalen, who was the first to find the species alive and who greatly supported the work resulting in the description of this new species.

Distribution: Indonesia; Sumatra. Endemic; Trimeresurus gunaleni spec. nov. is known only from two provinces: Sumatera Barat (Solok and Padang Mountains) and Sumatera Utara (Mt. Sibayak, Mt. Sinabung and Mt. Singkut near Berastagi).
This species can be expected in higher elevations all over the mountainous areas of Sumatra.

Natural History: Trimeresurus gunaleni spec. nov. inhabits regions typically covered with tropical moist montane forests, from 1,500 m to as high as at least 2,000 m, perhaps as much as 2,200 m, where it has been observed by local insect collectors (Figs. 15 and 16). There is no record of populations lower than 1,500 m. On Mount Sibayak, Danny Gunalen collected specimens of Trimeresurus hageni at elevation of 500 m, and Tropidolaemus wagleri at 200 m. Trimeresurus gunaleni is clearly isolated as a high montane dweller.


These species or complexes of pitvipers show the close zoogeographic relationships of the islands of Borneo and Sumatra with Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, it can also be seen that Sumatra is split into a northern and a southern region, with the larger northern region closely connected to Western Malaysia and Borneo, and the smaller southern region connected with Java. The limit between these two regions seems to be located between Padang and Bengkulu. Previously, these species complexes were regarded as widely distributed species, obscuring the zoogeographical relations of these regions. We are not confident that the taxonomy of the genus Trimeresurus is fully resolved and previously mentioned taxa might still prove to be endemic for one of the regions.
The finding of such a large and venomous pitviper as T. gunaleni spec. nov. in a group that was supposed to be well known is quite surprising. It is hard to understand that it was overlooked for such a long time despite thefact that the three specimens in the collection of Vienna have been available for a long time (collected 1899) and were already examined by other groups of herpetologists. The mountainous areas of Sumatra are still very incompletely known and further research in these areas is highly desirable.

Gernot Vogel, Patrick David and Irvan Sidik. 2014. On Trimeresurus sumatranus (Raffles, 1822), with the Designation of A Neotype and the Description of A New Species of Pitviper from Sumatra (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae).
Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8(2) [General Issue]: 1–29 (e80).

[Ornithology • 2014] Taxonomy of “Mouse-colored Tapaculos” (II): An Endangered New Species (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) from the Montane Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil; Scytalopus gonzagai

Scytalopus gonzagai Maurício, Belmonte-Lopes, Pacheco, Silveira,
Whitney & Bornschein, 2014
 Bahian Mouse-colored Tapaculo, an adult male at Boa Nova, Bahia.
photo: Ciro Albano.

An isolated population of tapaculos attributed to Scytalopus speluncae has been known from the mountains of southeastern Bahia state, Brazil, since the early 1990s, and a second isolated population was discovered in 1999. Morphological and bioacoustic analyses of 11 specimens and several tape recordings indicated that these populations represent a new species, in agreement with a previous molecular phylogenetic study. This species is unambiguously distinguished from its closest relatives by 4 suites of characters: (1) morphometrics–body proportions, (2) plumage color, (3) vocalizations, and (4) genetics. Using each of these character sets, separately or in combination, one can distinguish with 100% confidence the new species from its sister lineages. The new species is known from only 5 localities distributed in 2 distinct mountain ranges, 1 on the eastern slopes of the Planalto da Conquista, between the municipalities of Boa Nova and Iguaí, and another in the Serra das Lontras, ∼100 km to the southeast and only 37 km from the coast. The new species primarily inhabits undisturbed montane forest, from 660 to 1,140 m a.s.l. We estimated an area of occupancy of the species of only 5,885 ha and a density of 0.49 individuals ha−1, resulting in a total estimated population of 2,883 individuals. Forest remnants are under severe pressure from clandestine timber extraction and outright deforestation. Under IUCN criteria, this new species should be classified as “Endangered.”

Keywords: biogeography, conservation, endangered species, montane Atlantic Forest, Scytalopus, taxonomic revision, vocalizations

Giovanni Nachtigall Maurício, Ricardo Belmonte-Lopes, José Fernando Pacheco, Luís Fábio Silveira, Bret M. Whitney, and Marcos Ricardo Bornschein. 2014. Taxonomy of “Mouse-colored Tapaculos” (II): An Endangered New Species from the Montane Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae: Scytalopus). The Auk. 131 (4): 643-659; doi: dx.doi.org/10.1642/AUK-14-16.1

Uma população isolada, atribuída a Scytalopus speluncae, foi encontrada no início da década de 1990 em montanhas* do sudeste da Bahia, Brasil; posteriormente, uma segunda população foi encontrada em 1999. Análises morfológicas de 11 espécimes de museu e bioacústicas de várias gravações indicam que estas aves representam uma nova espécie, concordando com um estudo molecular anterior. A nova espécie é inequivocamente distinta de seus parentes mais próximos em quatro conjuntos de caracteres: (1) morfometria/proporções do corpo, (2) coloração da plumagem, (3) vocalizações, e (4) aspectos genéticos. É possível distinguir com 100% de confiança a nova espécie de suas linhagens irmãs usando estes caracteres, separadamente ou em combinação. A nova espécie é encontrada em apenas cinco localidades distribuídas em dois complexos montanhosos, um na vertente leste do Planalto da Conquista, entre os municípios de Boa Nova e Iguaí, e outro na Serra das Lontras, cerca de 100 km a sudeste e somente a 37 km da costa. Esta nova espécie ocorre principalmente em floresta primária montana entre 660 e 1.140 m de altitude. Estimamos uma área de ocupação de apenas 5.885 ha e uma densidade de 0,49 indivíduos por ha para esta espécie, resultando em uma população estimada em 2.883 indivíduos. Os remanescentes florestais na área de ocorrência da espécie estão sob forte pressão de atividades ilegais de desmatamento e extração de madeira. De acordo com os critérios da IUCN, esta nova espécie deve ser classificada como Em Perigo.

Palavras-chave: biogeografia, conservação, espécie ameaçada, floresta atlântica montana, Scytalopus, revisão taxonômica, vocalizações

New Bird Species Discovered in Brazil - Bahian Mouse-Colored Tapaculo

Monday, September 22, 2014

[Paleontology • 2014] Rhinorex condrupus • A New saurolophine hadrosaurid (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Campanian of Utah, North Americ

Rhinorex condrupus Gates & Scheetz, 2014
Rhinorex attacked by Deinosuchus, a Cretaceous crocodile
illustration: Julius Csotonyi

A new hadrosaurid is described from the Upper Cretaceous Neslen Formation of central Utah. Rhinorex condrupus gen. et sp. nov. is diagnosed on the basis of two unique traits, a hook-shaped projection of the nasal anteroventral process and dorsal projection of the posteroventral process of the premaxilla, and is further differentiated from other hadrosaurid species based on the morphology of the nasal (large nasal boss on the posterodorsal corner of the circumnarial fossa, small protuberences on the anterior process, absence of nasal arch), jugal (vertical postorbital process), postorbital (high degree of flexion present on posterior process), and squamosal (inclined anterolateral processes). This new taxon was discovered in estuarine sediments dated at approximately 75 Ma and just 250 km north of the prolific dinosaur-bearing strata of the Kaiparowits Formation, possibly overlapping in time with Gryposaurus monumentensis. Phylogenetic parsimony and Bayesian analyses associate this new taxon with the Gryposaurus clade, even though the type specimen does not possess the diagnostic nasal hump of the latter genus. Comparisons with phylogenetic analyses from other studies show that a current consensus exists between the general structure of the hadrosaurid evolutionary tree, but on closer examination there is little agreement among species relationships.

Keywords: Hadrosauridae, ornithopod, Cretaceous, Utah, Book Cliffs, Neslen Formation, biogeography, phylogenetics Related arti

Terry A. Gates & Rodney Scheetz. 2014. A New saurolophine hadrosaurid (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Campanian of Utah, North America.
Journal of Systematic Paleontology. doi: 10.1080/14772019.2014.950614